The modern image of the sailing-era frigate is of a 44-gun frigate with a main battery of 24-pound guns. In nautical fiction authors love pitting the hero against a 44-gun French or American frigate. Fiction is only part of the reason. The last surviving American frigate of that era, USS Constitution, belongs lo this class. The most famous Royal Navy frigate of the Napoleonic Era, HMS Indefatigable, was one of Britain's rare 24-pound frigates.

Yet 200 years ago the 44-gun frigate was a freak. The world's navies built only a handful of these monsters. By 1802 the 24-pound frigate was considered a failed experiment. The Royal Navy decided that the smaller 38-gun frigate was a handier choice. The American Navy built 13 frigates between 1794 and 1801. but only three 24-pound frigates. No others were built or planned. Ten years later these three American 44s redefined the frigate. Their victories led to a new generation of large frigates.

Navies now built and maintained frigates of a size formerly associated with ships-of-the-lint, and large frigates dominated the last three decades of the era of the sailing warship. A very interesting publication with the content that will definitely be greatly appreciated with all people having the interest in the warships of the past.

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This volume is the second of a series begun by Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860-1905, which dealt with a period for which there was little existing published material. Therefore it was only necessary to explain how - rather than why - the subject was covered. For the 1922-46 period there are already many reference books on warships, and so a few words about the aims of this volume are in order.

Available published works fall into three basic categories, all of which have some positive disadvantages from the point of view of the student or enthusiast: 1 - Yearbooks and annuals. These have virtually no access to primary sources; they are also subject to security restrictions and, often, intentionally misleading official information put out for propaganda purposes. Yearbooks naturally concentrate on what is new, and so there is rarely any incentive to correct data in retrospect. 2 - Pocket-books on navies or ship types. These are little more than fleet-lists, with no space to devote to the design background or general naval developments. 3- Monographs and detailed studies.

This category contains many fine works of extreme importance in their own right, but by no means all navies and ship types have benefited from such studies (very few of the smaller navies have been covered, and even US cruisers are still without a definitive technical history). Therefore, even if an avid enthusiast could afford to collect all available books, there would still be gaps in their coverage... Three other books in this series cover the periods 1860-1905, 1906-1921 and 1947-1995.

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The period 1860-1905 witnessed an unprecedented advance in warship design, but the interest in this development has always been hampered by the lack of a reliable single source. In fact there is very little information in print, and not even an accessible class list before the advent of the famous yearbooks towards the end of the period.

Even these are often inaccurate and, of course, cannot benefit from hindsight in their evaluation of ship designs. All the World's Fighting Ships was originally designed to fill this need for a very basic list of classes and their particulars, but it soon became obvious that far more information could be uncovered. With the documentary material now available it has been possible to give accurate assessments of many ship designs for the first time and to put the rapidly-changing technology into a proper historical context.

Unlike the contemporary naval annuals, the treatment of each class in this book is related to the size of ship and the importance of the navy, rather than taking the form of a similar and sketchy reference for every vessel. The result, we feel, is a substantial reference work. There are three more books in this series covering the periods 1906-1921, 1922-1946 and 1947-1995.

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This is the last volume of the Conway's famous series dedicated to the fighting ships of the world and started with the books addressing the historical periods 1860-19051906-1921 and 1922 -1946. This one it is dealing with the period of time between 1947 and 1995. In this book you will find all the fighting ships grouped by countries and listed in alphabetical order, including submarines.

All latest developments have been covered in this title with a very exhaustive content covering virtually every nation that have ever manned any naval vessel. The readers who have a look into this title will get a very good understanding and clear idea of the evolution of the navy fleets of the world through the design of their vessels; note that the book includes the technical descriptions of the projected classes of vessels that have actually been never constructed - they are still interesting and important for better understanding of the evolution of some navy fleets.

Every naval vessel or class is clearly described in detail with the information also covering the evolution of the project supplemented with a brief account on the technical modifications that have occurred throughout the operational life of the vessels up to their final fate. Numerous photographs and drawings complete the body of this interesting and informative historical publication.

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In 1906 the Royal Navy was just beginning to feel the effects of its dynamic new First Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher. But there were underlying causes for the technological ferment, which owed nothing to the driving force of Fisher. The great partnership between the Admiralty and the naval armaments industry had come to full flower, to a point where even the Royal Dockyards were at such a peak of efficiency that they could compete on an equal footing with private yards.

Sir William White, the Director of Naval Construction (1885-1901), had taken the reputation of British designs to the forefront of world opinion, so that exports helped to keep building costs competitive. Even more important, the emergence of the German Imperial Navy as a new threat provided a political spur to maintain the rate of expansion started by the Naval Defense Act in 1889. The pace of technical advance had paradoxically slowed sufficiently to permit a period of consolidation. Armor was no longer changing almost yearly, and so there was no race between gun caliber and protection to bedevil the designers.

The Parsons steam turbine was now proven, and needed only the endorsement of the Admiralty to displace reciprocating engines. And last of all, after four decades of largely theoretical discussion of warship design, there was now the practical experience of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 to shape ideas about how warships should fight. The Fisher dictum 'Build First and Build Fast, Each One Belter than the Last' made a rousing slogan, and industry responded magnificently by turning out large numbers of ships at astonishingly short intervals. As one commentator had said, the flame of genius burned uncertainly in Fisher, and in his enthusiasm for the new technology he showed surprisingly little understanding of its implications. Thus the basic design of the Dreadnought was repeated in two classes, before any valid lessons could be learned from the prototype.

Similarly the new armored cruisers were repeated with no attempt to eradicate any weaknesses. Speed was Fisher's god, and in his zeal to increase speed in every category be created severe problems. The time given to prepare designs for the new destroyers, for example, was ludicrously short, and as a result, the Navy was saddled with ship of considerably less utility than the previous class - and at higher cost. The mania for speed soon infected the whole Navy, and it became the habit to credit ships with absurdly high speeds on trials.

The policy of deception spread to other areas, and the battle cruisers in particular were credited with spurious Fighting qualities. As is so often the case, the deceivers ultimately came to believe their own deception, thereby defeating whatever object Fisher may have had in mind... There are three more books in this series covering the periods 1860-1905, 1922-1946 and 1947-1995.

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The 175 completed capital ships from fifteen navy fleets have all been fully described in these pages, as are the numerous further unbuilt ships that were aborted by World War or naval treaty. Data in contemporary naval reference books were often unreliable, as navies were seldom entirely open about their latest types, whether completed or not; this book corrects the record by using declassified information on Stalin's two-ocean battlefleet plans to reach the West.

Ship classes have been generally represented by both a photograph and a line drawing; wherever possible, these show appearances both before and after alterations. Line drawings, many specially commissioned, are to 1:1250 scale except were indicated. The book by Ian Sturton may be treated as the essential reference source as it is a good compendium of virtually all battlecruisers and battleships constructed from 1906 onwards. The ship line drawings are showing the profiles of the vessels and the images has been well chosen by the author.

The content is quite comprehensive in its detail and scope. The volume is making a truly perfect desk reference for the naval history students providing extensive technical details of the battleships that were designed in the historical period 1906-1940. The specialists in the field will also find it valuable.

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Our ships are our homes as well as being our place of work. So, when crew members board a new ship, they should expect it to be fit for purpose, i.e. designed and built with the user and operational tasks in mind, taking into account environmental conditions that it is likely to encounter during its working life.

That is reasonable, isn't it? In this issue of Alert we will focus on the ship design with the seafarer in mind (or not in mind, as the case may be...). The reality is that very few, if not none, of the crew members boarding a new ship, have been involved in its design... Please use this booklet on the same topic as the supplementary training document.

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Hello! We are all now familiar with Alert, you know it is a forum to share ideas and solve problems relating to the human element issues in the maritime industry, and today's issue concerns a very important investment - an investment in quality.

Regulations to ensure safer shipping and cleaner oceans are usually brought in following a casualty and accident involving loss of life, or one that had an impact on the environment. But some ship owners are failing to comply with the international requirements and their ships are falling below the standards. This video is to supplement the training booklet on same topics.

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