||Hassan Salih Khalilieh
||Brill Academic Publishers
- - - - - - download - - - - - -
The earliest maritime regulations in the Mediterranean world are thought to date back to 3000 B.C., the period during which the Old Kingdom of Egypt was established. Expanded commerce during the Early Bronze Age prompted the Pharaohs, whose authority extended beyond the coastal territories, to construct ports and shipyards to meet the demands of overseas trade. By the end of the first half of the third millennium, Egyptian ships frequented Levantine ports in the Mediterranean and the Aegean islands. Cedar and artifacts were shipped from Phoenicia and Syria, while Crete and Cyprus exported minerals. A few centuries later, merchants were transporting raw materials and finished objects such as precious stones, ivory, and rare woods from the Far and Near East to the Mediterranean area. In response to this burgeoning trade, shipwrights began building more sophisticated vessels that enabled seamen to expand their range and sail longer distances to more remote locations.' Although documented evidence of early Egyptian maritime codes has not been discovered, it is reasonable to postulate that overseas trade could not have had developed without regulations governing river and sea navigation...