COMPUTATIONAL RHEOLOGY FOR PIPELINE AND ANNULAR FLOW
|Author(s)||Wilson C. Chin|
|Publisher||Gulf Publishing Company|
Prior to BFM, workers invoked "slot flow," "parallel plate." and "narrow annulus" assumptions to model non-Newtonian flows in eccentric annuli. with little success in correlating experimental data. With the new methods, which solved the complete flow equations exactly, at least to the extent permitted by numerical discretization, it was possible to explain the University of Tulsa's detailed cuttings transport database in terms of simple physical principles. Fast forward to the new millennium. Cuttings transport, stuck pipe, and annular flow are even more important because deep subsea drilling imposes tighter demands on safety and efficiency. Rheology is more important than ever since drilling fluid characteristics now depend on temperature and pressure. To make matters worse, the same subsea applications introduce operational problems with severe economical consequences on the "delivery" side. More often than not. thick waxes will deposit unevenly and large hydrate plugs will form in mile-long pipelines. The harsh ocean environment and the lack of accessibility make every flow stoppage event a very serious matter involving millions of dollars...
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