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This book is an exploration of failure in tanks, vessels, and pipes. This is done from an engineer's perspective, which means that it has to be usable to make run-or-repair decisions, to decide whether the component is still "fit for service," or whether it should be repaired or replaced. Fitness-for-service is the understanding of why, when, and how tanks vessels, and pipes fail. The answer is at the crossroads of mechanical design and analysis, metallurgy, welding, corrosion, inspection, and a good grasp of operations. These disciplines have to merge into a succinct and clear answer, preferably a single number: how much longer can the component operate safely. In answering this question, the engineer will have to rely on experience and science, and will have to reach a quantitative answer in the form of time to failure or margin to failure. This book is a modest addition to the many documents that address the interesting question of fitness-for-service. Foremost among publications dealing with the topic is the American Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice API 579 Fitness for Service, a document which through its elegance, completeness, and practical value remains unmatched. The reader is urged to apply the API practice and other codes and standards referenced in the text, as they are the authoritative references to be used in making fitness-for-service and run-or-repair decisions.