||The Nautical Institute
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Some ships, especially the so-called powerful "1A Super" class, are designed and built to operate in heavy ice conditions. The very nature of their design, speed and power has die perverse effect that, when not carefully handled, the risk of collisions in ice, grounding, sustaining damage due to extreme loads on their mid-bodies in harsh ice conditions and so on is very high. Deficiencies regarding communication, organisation, operational instructions and routines related to navigation in ice can also be identified as some of the causes of accidents, damage to hull and machinery and serious commercial loss. Although one's own vessel may meet all requirements as to its ice-class, one's own performance will be closely watched by the pilots and ice-breaker staffs. Moreover, reports about this performance are prepared by them and sent to local maritime administrations, which could decide, based on those reports, that a particular vessel is not suited for winter navigation as it is causing unacceptable delays to odier vessels. Hence the importance of having ice-experience which, combined with the ice-breaking capabilities of ones own vessel, will result in building up credit' with the ice-breakers and a good reputation with the administrations, pilots, operator and/or charterer.