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The heat pipe is probably one of the most remarkable achievements in the field of thermal physics and in heat transfer engineering during the course of this century because of its unique ability to transfer heat over large distances with minimal losses. Heat pipes are used mainly to protect the environment and to save energy and fuel. They have emerged as an effective thermal solution, particularly in high heat flux applications and in situations where there is a combination of nonuniform heat loading and limited airflow over the heat generating components, and weight or space constraints. This book will briefly introduce heat pipe technology and then highlight its basic applications for passive thermal control. Once a heat and mass transfer theory relevant to heat pipe performance have been reviewed, mathematical models can be developed for calculating heat transfer limitations in high temperature heat pipes, and heat transfer limitations and temperature gradient of low temperature heat pipes. Calculated results are compared with the available experimental data from various sources to increase confidence in the present math models. For the convenience of the users of the present theory, a few computer codes and their applications are mentioned and they are available from Galaxy Advanced Engineering. Inc. These codes are designed to handle interactive input from users of the codes as well as two computer programs for high- and low-temperature heat pipes respectively are reported. These programs enable the performance of heat pipes with wrapped-screen, rectangular-groove, or screen-covered rectangular-groove wick to be predicted. These codes are especially helpful in the design of steady-state heat pipe and are executable on Window/PC computing platforms.