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In spite of the economic crisis of transport sectors such as the aerospace or naval, the automotive sector is facing a really challenging time. The trends in this sector during the past years had been focused on minimizing the pollutants, namely NOs, CO, HC or PM. However, the efforts in the next years are moving towards the C02 reduction, and thus minimizing the fuel consumption without worsening the pollutants. In the case of gasoline engines, the emissions problem is relatively solved since years by the three-way catalyst but for diesel, the use of different after-treatment systems as well as new combustion systems and control improvements are necessary. At the same time, the introduction of new fuel types and the development of the electric or hybrid vehicles introduce indeed new possibilities to the engineers. The diesel engine requires a renewal of the number of information sources available in order to monitor and control all the variables that affect the correct performance of this complex system. A good example is the on-board diagnostics algorithms necessary to monitor the NOx emissions, required for the urea dosing of the selective catalyst reduction systems or useful for the development of direct NOs control. Within this framework, this book intends to give solutions to real problems on the topic of the online estimation of the exhaust engine variables in diesel engines. The reader will find a number of methods and algorithms that cover the main possibilities for inferring the exhaust variables on-board...