||Hans-Gerhard Ramming, Zygmunt Kowalik
||Elsevier Oceanography Series
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Knowledge of the motion of the ocean, adjacent and marginal seas and of estuarial waters has always been of great importance for seagoing people and for coastal zone dwellers. Many attempts have been made to understand dynamic processes, such as tides, storms, surges and ocean currents. Such considerations have to be based upon the results of observations and measurements. Starting from the theory of hydrodynamics, the problem is to develop numerical methods which can be used to reproduce the observed or measured data. The numerical results of such a reproduction - or hindcasting - have to be compared with the results of measurements. If a close correlation demonstrates the validity of the theory, this hydrodynamic-numerical method may finally be used to forecast the dynamic processes of the sea, thus finding its practical application. Frequently, the purpose of coastal engineering is to influence or to control the actual conditions of the motion in the sea. Here, the hydrodynamic theory delivers the necessary basic information for technical planning and helps to find the most effective solution to the problem. Investigations have been carried out in many countries in order to solve the problems mentioned above. The main purpose of these investigations has been the development of methods which make possible a numerical simulation or physical reproduction of measured sea-levels and ocean currents and other physical phenomena of oceans and seas. In the following chapters, the progress of these investigations during the past years will be described.