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More than 80% of living organisms on earth are found in ihe aqualic ecosystem. The largest ecosystem on the planet is the ocean; it can be divided into photic, pelagic, benthic. epipelagic, and aphotic zones. More than 40000 different kinds of species are present in the marine environment, and they are classified as microorganisms, seagrasses. algae, corals, and animals. The marine world is considered as a huge reservoir of various biological active compounds. Marine organisms have the capacity to produce unique compounds due to exposure to exceptionally different oceanic environments, such as temperature, chlorophyll content, salinity, and water quality. The oldest known fossils are marine stromatolites, which have been evolving for 3.5 billion years; land fossils are about 450 million years old. Although the marine world represents nearly 3/4 of the earth's surface, it is one of most underutilized biological resources. Biotechnology is the most powerful tool to discover the many secrets of marine organisms and their compounds. There are numerous definitions and explanations that have been given to marine biotechnology since the day its term was coined.