||Andre Monaco, Patrick Prouzet
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Coastal zones form an interface between the land and the sea surface. Underground, coastal aquifers in turn form a hydro geological continuum, an interface between the ocean and continent. Groundwater flows in geological formations, usually perpendicular to the coastline, toward continental and marine outlets on the continental shelf with the release of groundwater or occasionally underwater sources. Groundwater is found in a variety of geological formations, between the sea and land: in detrital sedimentary formations (deltas, sedimentary basins, alluviums, etc.), in karstified limestone formations (Mediterranean. Mexico, Florida, etc.), bedrock formations (Britain. Scotland. Scandinavia, etc.) or volcanic formations (Reunion. Mayotte. Caribbean. Canaries. Azores, etc.). This space between the continent and ocean is an interface between salt and freshwater. Saltwater can penetrate the continent depending on natural conditions and abstractive conditions. As its density is higher than that of freshwater, it forms below freshwater, which we call a saltwater intrusion (theoretical abrupt interface) or a transition zone (diffuse interface).