||Judith van Leeuwen
||Wogegingen Academic publishers
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This book is the culmination of my PhD-research project. It explores the environmental governance of shipping and offshore oil and gas production from a historical perspective. During the years in which I have studied especially shipping and offshore oil and gas production, the degradation of the marine environment has entered the political agenda of the European Union and its member states, making it a current topic. I am very happy that this book contributes to these questions of the day and that this policy domain will remain the focus of my research for the years to come. Theoretically, this PhD project embraces a topic that has captured my interest since the start of my academic career: how does international and European environmental policy come about? Why and how do states cooperate with each other to solve environmental issues internationally? When the literature took up 'governance' as a key concept in discussing European and international environmental policy making, a key question became: how do states cooperate with each other in an increasingly multi-actor and multi-level setting? And to what extent does international environmental governance still evolve around the state, or have other actors become more important? When I started this PhD research project, my aims were to find empirical evidence for the shifts in governance from international governmental arrangements to innovative global governance arrangements in which market and societal stakeholders play an important role. A second aim was to find a way out of the conceptual confusion that exists about how to analyze the shift to innovative global governance arrangements and the question who is involved in what way in global policy processes. This book is the outcome of my attempt to achieve these aims.