||Elizabeth R. DeSombre
||The MIT Press
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Ships compete for business by keeping their costs as low as possible. Ship registries compere for ship registrations with policies that promise low costs, by keeping taxes, fees, and regulatory requirements low. This situation mirrors broader trends in globalization. In a world of freer trade, as Miles Kahler points out, more and more state policies have come to be seen as "disguised protectionism" or "non-tariff barriers," and concern has arisen about demands that they be removed to support trade without obstacles. A more nuanced variation of this concern is that, rather than forcing standards downward, globalization will cause them to fail to rise when they otherwise should; the economic disadvantages in a globalized world to being the first state to increase environmental regulation will prevent states from doing so. Lyuba Zarsky refers to this process as being "stuck in the mud."