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Guidance for the Prevention of Rollover in LNG Ships
   This guidance was produced by SIGTTO to members' concerns about the some of the interpretations of the functional requirements for emergency shutdown systems; in particular, differences between the needs of the liquid natural gases industry and those of liquid petroleum gases industry. It was also aimed to encourage and promote the use of linked emergency shutdown systems at both LPG and LNG terminals, especially where cargo transfer rates are quite high or where they handle one of the cargoes stated in IGC Code 1993/Chapter 17. However, this SIGTTO publication is not intended to contradict any international or national requirements or standards for operational practices at the liquefied gas ship-shore interface. One of the primary objectives of this guidance was to advise the operators/owners of gas carriers about the rollover-related issues. The rollover itself mainly refers to the quick release if the LNG vapor occurring when the layers of different densities of LNG are spontaneously mixed in a cargo or storage tank. While for the conventional onshore terminals all such issues are known and understood, for LNG vessels the associated circumstances are a bit unusual and have to be paid serious additional attention...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1944 | | Comments (0)

Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in terminals

   This latest edition of the textbook published by McGuire and White was published by Witherby in 2000 and covers following important aspects of the liquefied gases transportation and handling, as properties and basic information on liquefied gases, ship equipment and instrumentation, principles of gas carrier design, terminal equipment and instrumentation, the ship-shore interface, cargo measuring and control, cargo handling operations, emergency procedures and personal health-and-safety issues. This publication has been initially established as the standard guide covering the operational side of the shipping industry; the book should be treated as the completely independent companion that is to be used in the course of the professional training for the operational qualifications. As it was a case with two previous editions of the textbook, it is dealing with the issues related to the safe handling of liquefied gases in bulk and emphasized the importance of proper understanding of physical characteristics of such cargoes with regard to the practical operation of the associated equipment on board vessels and at terminals. It is primarily intended to be used by the ship officers and other people bearing responsibility for the operations.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 3376 | | Comments (0)

The Selection and Testing of Valves for LPG Applications

   This presentation by SIGTTO applies to the valves installed on board liquid petroleum gas vessels, but it can provide guidance to such valves on LPG terminals, as well. It is intended to serve as a supplemental guide to be used together with the relevant standards and codes for LPG valves and shall not override them. In this book such an important issues as valve design, specific design consideration for ESD (emergency shutdown) valves, valve testing, material requirements and codes and standards, have been addressed. The publication is mostly intended to provide necessary technical guidance to the designers and/or operators on the applicable general requirements for valves for LPG service, designed for an operating temperature ranging between -55 and +80 degrees Celsius. Though the document was specifically developed to apply to LPG vessels, the provisions contained in it may be equally applied throughout the liquefied petroleum gas industry. Note, however, that this paper shall not override any national/international standards or codes. The appendix at the last part of the document provides considerations to be taken into account during the periods of construction and maintenance.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1475 | | Comments (0)

A Justification into the Use of Insulation Flanges at the Ship-Shore and Ship-Ship Interface

   The purpose of the present SIGTTO publication is to provide a proper explanation of how insulation flanges protect from ignition caused by arcing. It contains information on the inductive circuits, electrical characteristics of the cargo transfer hoses together with the supporting calculations, some examples of the effects of hose inductance and resistance, information on the effect of capacitance, testing of the flanges and multiple loading arms and parallel circuits, all supplemented with the list of definitions and conclusions and recommendations. The insulation flanges have been used for several decades; their effectiveness is sometimes seriously challenged, though there have been no reported fire incidents on the manifolds installed on board of tankers or gas carriers. This shall be taken into consideration by the ship operators having a background of road tanker operations, supplying the LNG as fuel oil. Since this document mainly concentrates on the protection from arcing-caused fires, we would definitely consider it very important and recommended to everyone involved in such sort of operations as the info provided in the booklet might help in improving the operational safety.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1478 | | Comments (0)

LNG and LPG Experience Matrix

   This LNG/LPG Officer Experience Matrix is aimed to offer the transparent guidance for proper assessment of the risks relating to the officer complement. It considers a number of elements, including experience in rank, length of sea service, training assessment and experience in LNG/PLG operations. When evaluating risk in the event of non-compliance with a particular element of the experience matrix, consideration should be given to other mitigating factors, including bespoke training, the manning scale in place, time with the LNG/LPG ship owner/operator the wider competence management systems employed by the ship operator in officer recruitment and development. In the meantime, it is very important to appreciate that subject matrix has been supplied to serve as a tool for the risk evaluation and management. When dealing with the risk evaluation in case of non-compliance with the specific element of this matrix, due consideration is to be given to other mitigating factors involved, such as the manning scale, bespoke training and others. Careful attention to management of the risks has been widely recognized of the maintenance of the safety record of the ship and environment protection.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 2043 | | Comments (0)

Report on the Effects of Fire on LNG Carrier Containment Systems

   Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems. As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others. This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1544 | | Comments (0)

LNG Transfer Arms and Manifold Draining, Purging and Disconnection Procedure

   The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed. The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation. Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 2003 | | Comments (0)

A Contingency Planning and Crew Response Guide for Gas Carriers Damage at Sea and in Port Approaches

   The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning. The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry. The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies  and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1959 | | Comments (0)

A Guide to Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier Alongside and within Port Limits

   The main purpose of the present guide is to provide a thorough reference which might be useful to various port authorities as well as operating management of LNG carriers and terminals in reviewing or developing their planning in order to avoid the accidents or at lease reduce their possibility. The publication would also be quite helpful in controlling the possible consequences of such accidents happening within the port limits. This second (revised) edition takes into account the STCW Convention and SOLAS IX as well as the ISM Code. It covers ships in transit and operation, ships alongside, public relations and periodic review. Note, however, that the present publication shall not be treated as a comprehensive technical manual on contingency planning since the authors have confined this document to the aspect directly relating to the carriage and handling of gases. The circumstances influencing the contingency planning may vary from port to ports in the matters such as nautical/weather considerations, types of cargo being handled, authorities etc. When preparing this document, broader interpretation of the term "contingency planning" was taken, including considerations related to the accident prevention and control of possible consequences. 

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 2003 | | Comments (1)

Guide to Planning Gas Trials for LNG Vessels

   The present document is mainly intended to provide all members of the Organization with the guidelines of the requirements that are applicable to the testing the LNG cargo handling systems. The scope of the publication shall be considered applicable to the designs featuring established membranes, SPB and spherical tanks. Note that the content shall not be extended to the prototypes and novel ship designs since they will most probably require some specific approach, for example additional testing. Moreover, this paper shall not be treated as a sort of operational procedures; it is rather an aid to preparation of a specification to be used during the gas trials. The authors have tried to address all items that have to be tested before the vessel is handed-over as well as the testing done after the delivery, at the time of loading of the first cargo. The figures there in the text of the document are indicative and it would be better to refer to the shipbuilder's/manufacturer's recommendations for figures for the particular ship. It is assumed that the trials are done by the shipbuilder before delivery, which is actually the common practice. The trials themselves are conducted to confirm the correct operation of the handling systems...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1691 | | Comments (0)

ESD Arrangements and Linked Ship-Shore Systems for Liquefied Gas Carriers

   The core function of the cargo ESD system is to stop the flow of the cargo liquid/vapor in case of an emergency in order to bring the whole cargo handling system to a safe static condition. The present document released by SIGTTO was prepared to cover the emergency shutdown system arrangements for the gas carriers. The book has been arranged in three parts; the first part of the booklet covers the philosophy and some general requirements. the second part addresses the functions of the emergency shutdown system and associated safety systems. Finally, the last part of the book deals with the linked ESD systems. There are several appendices at the end of the book providing some useful supplementary information such as one on ESD processing, pneumatic ESD links, IGC Code requirements applicable to the ESD systems, and others. The publication was released due to the numerous concerns raised by the members of the organization about the interpretations of the functional requirements and is intended to encourage and promote the use of the linked systems; however, note that it shall not be treated as the technical specification for the ESD system design, it rather sets out the most important requirements to such systems...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1745 | | Comments (0)

Gas Concentrations in the Insulated Spaces of Membrane LNG Carriers

   The first three decades of the LNG industry, i.e. until the end of the 1990s, were dominated by base load projects with long-term sale and purchase and associated shipping contracts, typically of 20 years duration. With such arrangements the project partners had an equity share or knowledge in all facets of the project, from gas gathering to gas distribution, including shipping. Furthermore, their technical staff had a detailed knowledge and familiarity with all the individual sections of the contractual chain. By the end of the 20th century, however, a short-term or "spot" market was starting to develop within the industry. In this market LNG vessels are hired on "spot" and "short-term" charters, with the charterer often having little or no knowledge of the history of such vessels. This has led to charterers and buyers and sellers of the cargoes drawing upon their oil industry experience and insisting on vetting these vessels prior to accepting them. This has occasionally raised questions about aspects of the vessels' operation and maintenance that partners in the original long-term projects had previously understood and accepted. One area, unique to the LNG trade, in which this has occurred is the maximum, operationally acceptable, gas concentration to be found in the insulation spaces of the cargo containment system of the membrane-type liquefied natural gas carriers, particularly those of older design.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1404 | | Comments (0)

Safe Havens for Disabled Gas Carriers

   A ship in distress is usually in a condition where outside assistance is required to supplement the resources available on board to deal with the abnormal situation. A distress situation may have many facets ranging from disablement of power and/or steering to more fundamental damage to the hull or cargo system brought about by stress of weather, fire or other abnormal condition. Thus, the safest place for a ship in distress is in sheltered waters where the necessary external assistance can be brought to bear to bring the situation under control. Once under control, plans can then be made for the long term rectification of the situation, damage or other factors causing the distress situation. In many cases, the ability to move the vessel to a safe, sheltered location is the most important single contribution that a port or coastal authority can make but this should be done in the full understanding of the risks that attach to the damaged condition of the ship. Liquefied gas tankers have unique construction features and their cargoes have unique properties that set them apart from other classes of ship and other categories of hazardous cargo. This document describes the most important features of gas tankers and gas cargoes for those who may possibly become involved in seeking or granting a temporary refuge for such a ship, or be responsible for the contingency planning for such an event. This edition also includes details of actual incidents involving gas tankers.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1209 | | Comments (0)

Standards and Guidelines for Natural Gas Fuelled Ship Projects

   The present booklet was prepared by the specialists of the Liquid Natural Gas Ship Fuel Safety Advisory Group and then published by SIGTTO together with SGMF on behalf of the Group. The twenty-two members of the Group possess huge professional experience in the LNG industry and include shipbuilders, marine class societies, vessel and terminal operators, makers, regulators and other parties. The primary objectives of the above stated Group is the promotion of the use of LNG as a safe marine fuel friendly to the environment, retaining meanwhile a level of safety that would be considered equivalent to the safety level of the large scale liquid natural gas transport industry as well as the identification of the key issues and providing necessary technical guidance and valuable relevant information basing on the professional experience of the members. They also try to provide required assistance to SIGTTO in developing of practical policies concerning the implementation of the natural gas as a fuel. This booklet does not have the standards themselves; it has been rather developed to provide the users with the list of the industry guides and recognized standards to be references so it will still be useful to the people in the shipping industry.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 240 | | Comments (0)

LNG Bunkering Operations

   This training publication was prepared and released by the NTNU-Trondheim in order to establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations. The main economical and environmental benefits of using the LNG as marine fuel oil are widely recognized within the shipping industry. Today, construction of the infrastructure relating to the LNG bunkering is rapidly developing, responding to the constantly growing industry. Numerous ports are currently preparing to supply liquefied gas fuel; however, there are some uncertainties related to the process of bunkering as well as to the operational safety. Recently, there were some research works conducted to get the available LNG bunkering solutions standardized, including launching of the related ISO guideline and RP by DNV. Subject documents were mainly focused on the operational safety of bunkering, and on establishing of the safety zones; since very high risk is implied in the vicinity of the bunkering operations, and ferries (the main customers for the LNG fuel) have passengers most of the time, who are not allowed to present during such operations, the limitations imposed by the current regulations reduce the functionality and, consequently the competitiveness of LNG - that is why such fuel is a bit problematic for the ferry shipping companies...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1428 | | Comments (0)

Liquified Petroleum Gas Tanker Practice

   The main purpose of the author of this publication was to provide all interested people with some sort of guide to safe and efficient transportation of the LPG and ammonia; up to now, the coverage of ammonia transportation has never been covered in any single book. We do hope that it will be very useful not only to the personnel directly involved in operating the gas carriers but also to the operating staff of the gas terminals where such products are handled. Though some treatment has been provided to the equipment used, this publication shall not be considered as the pure technical guide. The author tried to  examine the most important technical problems associated with the transportation and handling of the LPG/ammonia cargoes and cover some technical aspects of the running of LPG carriers. It shall be noted that at all stages the detail procedures to follow are depending upon the conditions under which the cargo will be loaded/discharged and carried - this can be done with the gas being fully-pressurized, semi-pressurized or fully-refrigerated (at regular atmospheric pressure). The book is arranged in three parts, first two deal with the pressurized and fully-refrigerated ships while the third part concentrates on the cargo calculations, safety matters and recommendations. The technical information is supplemented with the glossary of the terms used.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 2123 | | Comments (0)

Gas Tankers - Advanced Course

   This training course has been intended to help people get better understanding on liquefied gases handling. It is actually the continuation of the training commencing with the Gas Tankers - Familiarization Course. It consists of fourteen chapters - Introduction; Actual Gas Cargoes; Compartment Systems; Freighting; Chemistry and Physics; Cargo Handling Equipment; Monitoring and Control; Safety and Environment; Gas Measurement; Cargo Pumps; Cargo Handling Routines; Cargo Calculation; Cooling Processes and associated calculations; Insulation; Heat Transfer. It is critically important training for everyone involved in any way in marine transportation of various liquefied gases, and also in operation/maintenance of related machinery, and calculations. During the period 1984-1992 some serious limitations to the STCW became apparent. People did feel that some of its requirements were vague and left to the sole discretion of the Parties, while others declared the problems with no any IMO oversight of compliance with the requirements, limited PSC, lack of clear competence standards, etc. It does make sense for personnel dealing with running the gas tankers to go through the materials of this course.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 2614 | | Comments (0)

Engine Management Concept for LNG Carriers

   As the only type of commercial vessel, Liquefied Natural Gas carriers have in the past many years maintained the steam turbine as their preferred propulsion system. This trend has persisted despite the fact that all other types of commercial vessels changed to the more efficient diesel engines in the 1970s, as a consequence of the rising fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. Moreover, diesel engines have also proved their reliability during many years of operation. The LNG carrier did maintain the steam turbine as its propulsion system because the natural evaporated boil-off gas from the cargo is available anyway, and because no other solution for the use of boil-off gas has been made availiable, at that time. There are, in principle, two ways of exploiting the boil-off gas, it can be burnt in a boiler, gas turbine or dual fuel diesel engine and provide power for the propulsion of the vessel, or the boil-off gas can be reliquefied in a reliquefaction system and returned to the cargo tanks. The reliquefaction of the boil-off gas from the LNG cargo makes it possible to increase the cargo quantity delivered to the customers, instead of using it as fuel, and to install more efficient propulsion systems on LNG carriers. An LNG carrier is a special-purpose ship in which sophisticated technology is used to transport liquefied gas, a highly flammable cargo. Safety is, of course, paramount, as is the reliability and availability of the propulsion system of such a ship, because these factors influence the whole supply chain from the well to the consumer.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1828 | | Comments (0)

BYE-LAWS of the Society of International Gas Tanker Terminal Operators Limited

   The legal publication officially released by the SIGTTO, standing for the "Society of International Gas Tanker Terminal Operators Ltd". The main body of this document has been arranged in seventeen sections called articles. The first articles in the opening one and it addresses name, offices and definitions, while the second article is titled "Purpose, powers and activities" including prohibited activities. The third articles deals with shares, covering share capital, registration of members, transfer and purchase of shares. The next article deals with membership and eligibility including associate membership, admission, expulsion. Then there comes an articles on meetings of members covering the quorum, voting matters, notices and representation. The following article "Assessed capacity" concentrates on computation and records of assessed capacity. The remaining articles deal with dues and assessments, officers, directors, working committees, accounts and audit, indemnification, alteration of bye-laws, interpretation, winding up, seal of the company, and forms A and B. Subject blank forms are contained there at the end of the document. The must-have one and a good reference.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1300 | | Comments (0)

Drafting of LNG Charters

   My topic today is the drafting of LNG charters. This may seem a bit of a dull topic but I would ask you to bear in mind that the charter hire for a new generation LNG vessel is around US$28 million per annum! Charters are often for 25 years, so it is important to get the drafting right. This is obviously a big topic and I will therefore concentrate on certain areas - the type of charter used, the relationship between the Owner, the Charterer, the Builder and the Banks, particular points to look for in long term charters, and dispute resolution - always important to a lawyer, but also to the client. First of all a little background. LNG is a rapidly growing market and in the area which I have some particular expertise, Qatar, there are interests in over 75 LNG vessels both built and to be delivered in the next few years. Traditionally, LNG chartering was done on the basis of an individual project, the sale contract was entered into between the Seller and the Buyer, LNG vessels were built to service that particular project and were on long term charter to the Charterer or an Affiliate of the Charterer. That has now begun to change, although I, personally, think it a little too early to talk about there being a spot market for LNG. There are now Contracts of Affreightment, short term time charters, voyage charters, cargo swaps and single cargo contracts. However, I think that the focus is still on the long term time charter and therefore that is what I am going to talk about today.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1700 | | Comments (0)

Fire Prevention in the Cargo Containment Systems of Liquefied Gas Carriers in Shipyards

   In the last 35 years a high number of serious casualties have occurred involving fires in the cargo containment system of liquefied gas carriers, whilst the vessels have been in shipyards. Many of these have resulted in multiple fatalities, environmental damage and serious financial loss to the ship-owner. It should also be borne in mind that it is not unknown for ships to be arrested and owners superintendents, or representatives, to be held in custody for lengthy periods whilst accidents are investigated. In 1995, the SIGTTO Secretariat undertook research into the subject and published the results at the Balikpapan Panel Meeting in September 1995. At the time this was thought to be sufficient to alert the industry to the problem, but a recent enquiry has shown that since September 1995 there have been 7 reported incidents resulting in 7 fatalities and the constructive total loss of a vessel undergoing repair. This guide has been prepared by SIGTTO in order to draw attention to the problem and propose risk mitigation measures to those responsible for managing these activities. Whilst this safety guide was being prepared, in July 2001, a fire occurred on a 3200 m3 semi-pressurised LPGC at a repair yard in Slovenia. The fire, which burned for over 2 hours, damaged the structure and insulation of No.1 cargo tank and was caused by hot work during steel-work renewal in the double bottoms. There were no fatalities or injuries.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1315 | | Comments (0)

Bulk Liquefied Gas by Sea - The Early Years

   There have been so many publications about the carriage of the first cargoes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) onboard the Methane Pioneer in 1959. But what of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a gas ship cargo which predates LNG? When were the pioneering LPG cargoes carried and how did this important seaborne trade develop? In this tribute to the first gas carriers, Robin Gray, former SIGTTO General Manager, sheds light on the early days of the less well-known part of the gas shipping industry and on the role played by one particular shipyard in the North East of England. This paper by Robin Gray, former general manager of SIGTTO, provides some historical background, touching the post-war development, addresses the major conversions of the vessels and famous conversion projects, applicable rules and patterns, liability insurance and cargo familiarity, material used for the construction and insulation of the cargo tanks, integrated gas distribution, propane loading problems, local gas trials, ethylene-related issues, training provided to the officers, fire protection tests, cooldown tanks, welding problems etc. Have a look into this document since the information contained in it is useful and practical.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1185 | | Comments (0)

The Transportation of Liquefied Gas - An Overview of Some Methods Used for Mitigating the Risks

   This presentation is dedicated to the transportation of liquefied gas. It contains an overview of some methods used for mitigating the risks and describes potential hazards of LNG and LPG, and summarizes various techniques to minimize their risks on the vessels, at terminals and jetties, combined operating practices and procedures, contingency planning. The presentation starts with some historical background. The marine transportation of LPG started before the World War Two and was conducted in the pressurized containment and in relatively small quantities. Transportation of LNG started several years after that, in 1959. Today, there are more than thousand of gas carriers. The major hazard associated with the marine transportation of all liquefied gases is not their liquefied form but rather the vapor released. The heat is released, subsequently, that may ignite and cause fire. With regard to the possible pollution of the marine environment, liquefied gases are neither toxic nor persistent so shall not be considered water pollutants; however, possible explosions was obviously cause lethal effects to various marine organisms - but in general the environmental hazard is less than the one of the crude oil spills...

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1513 | | Comments (0)

Types of Liquefied Gas Carriers

   This is the Discussion Paper dedicated to the Types of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Carriers, prepared by the Shipping International Ltd. It was abbreviated from the Tanker Safety Training (LNG) publication. All gas cargoes can be transported only in a form of a liquid (i.e. neither gas nor even vapor) and, taking into account their physical/chemical properties, they have to be either at pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, or at temperatures below ambient temperature; the third option is in fact a combination of first two. That is why all gas carriers are usually divided in three groups - fully-pressurized, semi-pressurized and refrigerated, and fully refrigerated. However, it shall be noted that the grouping names stated above are mostly used when discussing the types and classes of LPG rather than carriers of natural gas. Take your time and just go through this short but very informative booklet and you will get a good knowledge of the nomenclature of the gas carriers and will be much more familiar with their types, general technical characteristics, descriptions of the construction and equipment, main advantages and disadvantages of the particular type etc. - excellent for training purposes.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1795 | | Comments (0)

LNG - A Glossary of Terms

   Since LNG are playing a very important part in today's world's energy mix, the professionals of the industry must be familiar with liquid natural gases terminology. The changing and constantly growing nature of LNG implies that its language brings together terms from the worlds of technique, finance, trading, utilities and many other sectors, not only from shipping and gas spheres. The present Glossary is intended to provide a comprehensive guide to above mentioned terms. Like any other language guide it is sometimes fascinating and intriguing. It will be of great use to a very broad audience - chief executive officers, traders, accountants, tax consultants, regulators, and others -bringing together technological, commercial, engineering, accounting terms from both inside and outside the LNG sector. This Glossary was published by PWH together with the Petroleum Economist Ltd and shall be treated as a sort of contribution to promoting transparency within the industry and for better understanding and knowledge in the global shipping industry. The glossary is excellent and maybe the best one available on the LNG transportation as it was specifically developed for this particular area of the maritime industry.

Category: LIQUEFIED GASES HANDLING | Views: 1794 | | Comments (0)

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