The core function of the cargo ESD system is to stop the flow of the cargo liquid/vapor in case of an emergency in order to bring the whole cargo handling system to a safe static condition. The present document released by SIGTTO was prepared to cover the emergency shutdown system arrangements for the gas carriers.
The book has been arranged in three parts; the first part of the booklet covers the philosophy and some general requirements. the second part addresses the functions of the emergency shutdown system and associated safety systems. Finally, the last part of the book deals with the linked ESD systems. There are several appendices at the end of the book providing some useful supplementary information such as one on ESD processing, pneumatic ESD links, IGC Code requirements applicable to the ESD systems, and others.
The publication was released due to the numerous concerns raised by the members of the organization about the interpretations of the functional requirements and is intended to encourage and promote the use of the linked systems; however, note that it shall not be treated as the technical specification for the ESD system design, it rather sets out the most important requirements to such systems...
This latest edition of the textbook published by McGuire and White was published by Witherby in 2000 and covers following important aspects of the liquefied gases transportation and handling, as properties and basic information on liquefied gases, ship equipment and instrumentation, principles of gas carrier design, terminal equipment and instrumentation, the ship-shore interface, cargo measuring and control, cargo handling operations, emergency procedures and personal health-and-safety issues.
This publication has been initially established as the standard guide covering the operational side of the shipping industry; the book should be treated as the completely independent companion that is to be used in the course of the professional training for the operational qualifications. As it was a case with two previous editions of the textbook, it is dealing with the issues related to the safe handling of liquefied gases in bulk and emphasized the importance of proper understanding of physical characteristics of such cargoes with regard to the practical operation of the associated equipment on board vessels and at terminals. It is primarily intended to be used by the ship officers and other people bearing responsibility for the operations.
This training publication was prepared and released by the NTNU-Trondheim in order to establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations. The main economical and environmental benefits of using the LNG as marine fuel oil are widely recognized within the shipping industry. Today, construction of the infrastructure relating to the LNG bunkering is rapidly developing, responding to the constantly growing industry.
Numerous ports are currently preparing to supply liquefied gas fuel; however, there are some uncertainties related to the process of bunkering as well as to the operational safety. Recently, there were some research works conducted to get the available LNG bunkering solutions standardized, including launching of the related ISO guideline and RP by DNV.
Subject documents were mainly focused on the operational safety of bunkering, and on establishing of the safety zones; since very high risk is implied in the vicinity of the bunkering operations, and ferries (the main customers for the LNG fuel) have passengers most of the time, who are not allowed to present during such operations, the limitations imposed by the current regulations reduce the functionality and, consequently the competitiveness of LNG - that is why such fuel is a bit problematic for the ferry shipping companies...
This LNG/LPG Officer Experience Matrix is aimed to offer the transparent guidance for proper assessment of the risks relating to the officer complement. It considers a number of elements, including experience in rank, length of sea service, training assessment and experience in LNG/PLG operations.
When evaluating risk in the event of non-compliance with a particular element of the experience matrix, consideration should be given to other mitigating factors, including bespoke training, the manning scale in place, time with the LNG/LPG ship owner/operator the wider competence management systems employed by the ship operator in officer recruitment and development. In the meantime, it is very important to appreciate that subject matrix has been supplied to serve as a tool for the risk evaluation and management.
When dealing with the risk evaluation in case of non-compliance with the specific element of this matrix, due consideration is to be given to other mitigating factors involved, such as the manning scale, bespoke training and others. Careful attention to management of the risks has been widely recognized of the maintenance of the safety record of the ship and environment protection.
Since LNG are playing a very important part in today's world's energy mix, the professionals of the industry must be familiar with liquid natural gases terminology. The changing and constantly growing nature of LNG implies that its language brings together terms from the worlds of technique, finance, trading, utilities and many other sectors, not only from shipping and gas spheres.
The present Glossary is intended to provide a comprehensive guide to above mentioned terms. Like any other language guide it is sometimes fascinating and intriguing. It will be of great use to a very broad audience - chief executive officers, traders, accountants, tax consultants, regulators, and others -bringing together technological, commercial, engineering, accounting terms from both inside and outside the LNG sector.
This Glossary was published by PWH together with the Petroleum Economist Ltd and shall be treated as a sort of contribution to promoting transparency within the industry and for better understanding and knowledge in the global shipping industry. The glossary is excellent and maybe the best one available on the LNG transportation as it was specifically developed for this particular area of the maritime industry.
The legal publication officially released by the SIGTTO, standing for the "Society of International Gas Tanker Terminal Operators Ltd". The main body of this document has been arranged in seventeen sections called articles. The first articles in the opening one and it addresses name, offices and definitions, while the second article is titled "Purpose, powers and activities" including prohibited activities. The third articles deals with shares, covering share capital, registration of members, transfer and purchase of shares.
The next article deals with membership and eligibility including associate membership, admission, expulsion. Then there comes an articles on meetings of members covering the quorum, voting matters, notices and representation. The following article "Assessed capacity" concentrates on computation and records of assessed capacity. The remaining articles deal with dues and assessments, officers, directors, working committees, accounts and audit, indemnification, alteration of bye-laws, interpretation, winding up, seal of the company, and forms A and B. Subject blank forms are contained there at the end of the document. The must-have one and a good reference.
There have been so many publications about the carriage of the first cargoes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) onboard the Methane Pioneer in 1959. But what of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a gas ship cargo which predates LNG? When were the pioneering LPG cargoes carried and how did this important seaborne trade develop? In this tribute to the first gas carriers, Robin Gray, former SIGTTO General Manager, sheds light on the early days of the less well-known part of the gas shipping industry and on the role played by one particular shipyard in the North East of England.
This paper by Robin Gray, former general manager of SIGTTO, provides some historical background, touching the post-war development, addresses the major conversions of the vessels and famous conversion projects, applicable rules and patterns, liability insurance and cargo familiarity, material used for the construction and insulation of the cargo tanks, integrated gas distribution, propane loading problems, local gas trials, ethylene-related issues, training provided to the officers, fire protection tests, cooldown tanks, welding problems etc. Have a look into this document since the information contained in it is useful and practical.
As the only type of commercial vessel, Liquefied Natural Gas carriers have in the past many years maintained the steam turbine as their preferred propulsion system. This trend has persisted despite the fact that all other types of commercial vessels changed to the more efficient diesel engines in the 1970s, as a consequence of the rising fuel prices and increased environmental awareness.
Moreover, diesel engines have also proved their reliability during many years of operation. The LNG carrier did maintain the steam turbine as its propulsion system because the natural evaporated boil-off gas from the cargo is available anyway, and because no other solution for the use of boil-off gas has been made available, at that time. There are, in principle, two ways of exploiting the boil-off gas, it can be burnt in a boiler, gas turbine or dual fuel diesel engine and provide power for the propulsion of the vessel, or the boil-off gas can be reliquefied in a reliquefaction system and returned to the cargo tanks. The reliquefaction of the boil-off gas from the LNG cargo makes it possible to increase the cargo quantity delivered to the customers, instead of using it as fuel, and to install more efficient propulsion systems on LNG carriers.
An LNG carrier is a special-purpose ship in which sophisticated technology is used to transport liquefied gas, a highly flammable cargo. Safety is, of course, paramount, as is the reliability and availability of the propulsion system of such a ship, because these factors influence the whole supply chain from the well to the consumer.