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Essentials of Offshore Structures - Framed and Gravity Platforms

   This textbook was released with the intention to help readers better examine the engineering ideas and offshore exploration and production platforms, providing comprehensive coverage of the platform design concepts. The authors offer a clear demonstration of the theory and practical application of all relevant procedures and tried to highlight best engineering applications for the design, research and development of the offshore structures so that the readers may have a very detailed overview of the structures as well as of the costing factors influencing their choice for the particular site.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 973 | | Comments (0)

Guide to Single Point Moorings

   The present publication has been prepared to serve as a reference tool covering numerous important aspects of SPM, standing for the single point mooring systems. Such systems are widely used to keep a marine facility stationed at one particular fixed location. The vessels to be fixed could be FSO or FPSO. Nowadays, there are hundreds of SPM systems operational. The opening part of this volume gives some brief historical background of the origins of oil and gas exploration and the supply and demand for oil in today's situation. In addition, this publication also shows the history of the development of the SPM systems, addressing some of the important aspects of designing these systems. The author of this volume also goes into details of the hydrodynamics and loadings acting on these facilities by waves and wind together with the behaviour of various types of mooring systems. The historical overview is followed by the chapter describing the basic technical characteristics of FPSOs and relevant terminology as well as fundamental design considerations. There is a separate chapter dedicated to the weather conditions, i.e. current, wind, waves including simulation, and hurricane conditions. Mooring elements and risers are described in the next chapters. The book is also dealing with such aspects as riser analysis, hydrodynamic forces, particulars of VLCCs, wind and current loads acting on FPSOs and VLCCs, first and second order wave forces, roll and pitch, viscous forces, signal analysis, mat equations, model testing and so many others.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 261 | | Comments (0)

Environmental Technology in the Oil Industry

   In this third, updated, edition of his book, Stefan Orszulik made another attempt to look at each stage in the lifecycle of petroleum products (from oil exploration stage to end use), trying to thoroughly examine the environmental pressures experienced by the oil industry and its response to such pressures. He explores the related environmental concerns and computer modelling techniques in a very understandable way so the book my be used even by non-experts. The publication is primarily intended for the workers of the oil industry and provides essential reference for various research and government institutions and will be useful to anyone interested in environmental technological issues.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 523 | | Comments (0)

Macondo Well Deepwater Horizon Blowout - Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety

   The title is quite self-explanatory.... this official release by the National Research Council is dedicated to one of the most catastrophic offshore disasters in the history - the blowout of the Macondo Well resulting in the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The authors of the publication, being the experts in the various offshore related fields such as petroleum engineering, marine systems, geophysics, risk analysis etc., have tried to analyze the reasons and consequences of what happened in order to provide a series of valuable recommendations for the oil and gas industry in order to avoid or at least reduce to the minimum extent the likelihood of any future losses...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 465 | | Comments (0)

Dictionary of Petroleum Exploration, Drilling and Production

   The new, completely revised edition of the Dictionary. A truly must have book for every worker of the offshore industry. It does not actually matter what exactly you do - are you the offshore worker involved in the actual drilling operation, or supplier providing the offshore facility with what they need, or the office worker - this publication will be of great use for everyone. The articles in the dictionary have been divided into several chapters addressing such the important topics as rotary drilling rig parts, drillstem test symbols, cable tool drilling rig parts, etc. In addition to that, some information is provided on the petroleum related organizations, atomic weights and numbers, abbreviations.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 702 | | Comments (0)

Basic Safety Offshore

   A truly perfect guidance on the offshore safety developed by Falck Nutec, one of the world leaders in this field. It will be very useful for people dealing with the safety issues in the offshore industry. The book starts with some general information on the offshore activities so that readers can get necessary basic knowledge. Then, the authors of the booklet provided the overview of the miost important relevant national/international laws and regulations. The safety part itself consists of safety awareness info, followed by the main abandonment and survival techniques, SAR (searchand-rescue), and location equipment. The readers will find all necessary information on the HUET courses related to the helicopter safety, how to provide first aid to others and protect from hypothermia, as well as firefighting equipment and techniques, and breating apparatus...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 780 | | Comments (0)

Subsea engineering handbook

   Nowadays, subsea engineering is a very big and complex discipline involving the design, construction, analysis, installation and further integrity management of the subsea installations and associated equipment such as wellheads, manifolds, trees, jumpers etc. It sounds strange but currently there is no book available that would help the engineers understand the basic principles of subsea engineering. The intention of the authors f the present publication was to provide people willing to become subsa engineers with the comprehensive source of the information on all matters involved. the book was written in very clear and easily understandable language and answers the crucial questions of the industry - it yields a roadmap to all people involved in subsea engineering, suchas regulatory personne, estimators and project managers. The material contain in the book covers the issues concerning both floating and fixed offshore installations, ROVs. pressure piping and many more.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 3976 | | Comments (0)

CFD for Wind and Tidal Offshore Turbines

   Problems where the forces on rotating or oscillating bodies in a fluid are to be predicted are common in engineering applications and result in fluid-structure interaction situations. Examples are flows around isolated rotating bodies and foils, turbo machinery applications, insect flight aerodynamics, unmanned air vehicles and, more recently, flows through renewable energy devices, e.g. wind and tidal turbines. A particularly challenging problem is presented by cross-flow wind and tidal turbines for power generation. These types of turbine consist of foil shaped blades that generate lift forces so as to rotate a shaft to which the blades are connected. Therefore azimuthal changes in blade aerodynamics are common, resulting in complex flow phenomena such as stalled flows, vortex shedding and blade-vortex interactions. Cross-Row Turbines are sometimes referred to as vertical-axis turbines, however the term cross-flow turbine is preferred since the absolute turbine position is omitted and the relative flow-axis geometry is emphasised through this terminology. To date, this type of turbine configuration has had limited use within the wind energy sector, where the three bladed axial flow turbine has been widely adopted. However, it is thought that CFT configurations can be advantageous for new emergent markets as offshore wind and tidal energy production and also for installation in urban environments. A brief review of some of the arguments in favour and against this type of configuration follows. On the one hand, the main drawback is that CFT are generally less efficient than axial flow turbines since the downstream half of the turbine produces less torque due to the shadowing from the upstream blades. Furthermore, since for part of the cycle the blade moves parallel to the flow, the lift force powering the blades, being proportional to the incident flow speed squared, is reduced...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 881 | | Comments (0)

Offshore Energy Structures

    This book was written for the offshore industry professionals and students in the field of marine, ocean, coastal engineering, renewable energy and others. The author tried to introduce the base for the design of the offshore structures; he addresses the wind and wave energy converters, platforms, wind turbines as well. The publication created a link betweed theoretical methods of design and calculation, and available recognized standards. The material is presented in simple and easy to understand way. Some of the most important keywords in the book are offshore structures, structural dynamics, wave energy converters, conbined wind and wave energy, energy structures, stochastic methods, wind turbines including floating ones, renewable energy etc.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1112 | | Comments (0)

Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

   The techniques of oil and gas recovery are under constant development. This is followed by an increased demand to the accuracy of PVT simulation results. High quality simulation results are dependent on accurate fluid compositions and PVT data. We wanted to cover experimental procedures in more detail in the second edition than in the first edition, so we asked our colleague. Jawad Azeem Shaikh, to be a coauthor. Jawad has 12 years of experience from a commercial PVT laboratory, and his experience includes sampling, compositional analyses, and measurements of both routine and EOR PVT data. Chapters 2 and 3 provide a comprehensive review of experimental procedures used to provide compositional data and PVT data. The oil industry sees the PC-SAFT equation as a possible alternative or replacement of cubic equations. The PC-SAFT equation is introduced in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 on fluid characterization includes a section on the characterization of the PC-SAFT equation. Chapter 7 shows simulation results for PVT data obtained with the PC-SAFT equation. Chapter 9 on regression has a section on how to recreate the original reservoir fluid composition from a depleted gas condensate reservoir fluid sample. Chapter 12 on asphaltenes includes a section on how to simulate the location of a possible asphaltene tar mat. We have, since the first edition was published, had the opportunity to analyze numerous EOR PVT data and have used this experience to make a thorough update of Chapter 15 on MMP calculations. All other chapters are updated with new data material and new references.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 959 | | Comments (0)

Anchor Handling

   This publication prepared by Michael Hancox and published by Oilfield Publications Ltd., belongs to the famous The Oilfield Seamanship Series. As the nname implies, this one is dedicated to the anchor handling techniques, i.e. to the one of the most important sides of the offshore operations. Apart from the introductory chapter, the book includes parts covering equipment layout and function, running and retrieving anchors, rigging for anchor handling operations, handling chains, support moring operations, bat-barge cooperation, equipment maintenance, safety procedures etc. The publication will be of great use to ship Masters and, in fact, everyone involved in the anchor handling operations at the oilfields as it describes in detail the AH operations from the AHTS view point offering quite fresh look at this matter.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1925 | | Comments (0)

Offshore Structures - Design, Construction and Maintenance

   The authors of the present publications tried to cover the matters related to the design as well as construction/maintenance of offshore platforms in detail, focusing on the most critical issues in offshore design that are usually faced by designers. The book also provides readers with the simplest offshore design tools, based on the most popular industry codes like ISO and API, and the other recognized technical practices and standards that are in commom use in the design of the offshore structures. In addition to that, it is very important to focus the attention on various methods for reviewing and controlling the design that most engineers will see in the review cycle; and this book covers the complete range of the offshore structure engineers activities so it will be of definitely great use for them.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 2253 | | Comments (0)

Maersk Training Anchor Handling Simulator Course

   The aims and objectives of the present anchor handling course developed by Maersk is to promote the safest and most efficient ways of performing anchor handling operations by means of enhansing the knowledge and skills of the bridge teams. The material include abbreviations used during the course, introductory part, calculations, examples of anchor deployment, various anchor handling equipment explained in detail, ship handling and manoeuvring techniques, drilling unit operations and many more.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1249 | | Comments (0)

Fluid Dynamics of Oil and Gas Reservoirs

   This book will definitely be a very valuable asset in the engineer's library for petroleum engineering students as well as industry veterans working in the oil fields. The authors of this publication did their best to combine a rigirous (but still easily understandable) approach and its application to the environmental and, in particular, engineering to solve the important problems that the engineers and geologists face on the daily basis...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 726 | | Comments (0)

Oil & Gas Pipelines in Nontechnical Language

   If some veteran natural gas pipeline operators moved over to an oil pipeline, they would scratch their heads in wonderment about the different variables, controls, customer requirements, and alarm bells. But aside from operations, oil and natural gas pipelines look essentially the same, perform the same service, and obey the same laws of physics. They are installed in largely the same manner and face the same regulatory and social dilemmas. But that does not mean they all use the same nomenclature. Such differences in nomenclatures can occur concerning natural gas pipelines versus oil pipelines, and crude oil pipelines versus refined products pipelines. Making life easier, operations of some types of pipelines are more or less indistinguishable from oil pipelines operations. These include chemical liquids pipelines, natural gas liquids (NGL) pipelines, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipelines. On the other side, pipelines that move anhydrous ammonia, carbon dioxide, and gaseous chemicals like ethylene operate much like natural gas pipelines...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1374 | | Comments (0)

Tubular String Characterization in High Temperature High Pressure Oil and Gas Wells

   In applied basic theory for deep well testing research, tubular string mechanical analysis is complex as fluid temperature and tubing pressure have a large effect on the force of the tubular string. When well testing, the methods used for determining the temperature and the pressure of the tubular string include measurements from thermometers and pressure gauges located in the tubing, temperature and pressure measurements at only the well bottom and well head. With these measurements, it is possible to predict the complete distribution using theory analysis technology. Predicting accurate temperature and pressure profiles in flowing wells can greatly enhance oil and gas production. However, for gas wells with High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP), it is often difficult to operate thermometers and pressure gauges within the tubing itself, and therefore theory analysis can be used as an effective and feasible method.cost and time.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 599 | | Comments (0)

Handbook of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

   Introduction; Offshore oil and gas; Formation, accumulation and composition; Definition of oil and gas - conventional crude oil, natural gas, gas condensate, gas hydrates, opportunity crudes, high acid crudes, foamy oil, heavy oil, extra heavy oil, tar sand bitumen, resources and reserves.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1965 | | Comments (0)

The Sea of Lost Opportunity

   Contents: In Europe's Sick Bay - Great Britain before North Sea Oil; The Genesis of the North Sea Oil and Gas Industry; Motivations and Constraints; Offshore Supplies in the period from 1963 to 1972; Offshore Supplier Office’s Formative Years 1973–1980 and Long March into History 1981–1993; Assessing OSO; Case Studies/Expert Testimony; Looking Back on a Thirty-Year Journey; Postscript; Glossary.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 666 | | Comments (0)

Gas Production Operations

   Although natural gas has been utilized as a fuel for more than 150 years, the large demand for it has developed fairly recently. The principal reason for this is the greater difficulty of storing and transporting gas as compared to liquid fuels. Initially, natural gas was used only in the areas in which it was produced, with excess production being vented to the air or flared. This was especially true of gas produced along with the oil in oil fields. The development of large diameter, high pressure pipelines and compressors, along with the technology of gas storage in reservoirs, has spurred both the demand for natural gas and the development of the technology required to produce and transport it. This is illustrated in the United States by the fact that natural gas supplied more than 30% of the total energy demand in 1980 as compared to 18% in 1950 and less than 4% in 1920. Natural gas supplied about 20% of the energy worldwide in 1980. The increased demand has also gready increased the price obtained for the gas. In 1950 the average price for natural gas in the United States was about $0.07 per thousand standard cubic foot (Mscf), and as late as 1970 the price averaged only about $0.17/Mscf. In 1980 the average price had increased to more than $0.90/Mscf with gas in some areas selling for as much as $9.00/ Mscf. The large difference in the average and maximum selling price is due to the huge quantities being sold at very low prices under long term contracts made many years ago...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1435 | | Comments (0)

Arctic Offshore Engineering

   The Arctic is a region of endless fascination, beauty and excitement. Many writers more eloquent than we are have explored its biology, geography, history and environment. At the same time, it is the home of many people who want to pursue civilised and comfortable lives with the amenities of the 21s1 century. The Arctic seas and the lands bordering them are important to the wider human community as a source of raw materials, above all petroleum, but as well as for fish, timber and mineral ores, and important too for tourism and exploration. Many important reserves of petroleum have been found already, some of those reserves are in production, and the unexplored geology of this vast region has many promising structures: some estimates have it that as much as a third of the petroleum still to be discovered will be found in the Arctic. With that as one priority, we must not forget that the Arctic is uniquely vulnerable to damage: if we make a mess, the consequences will be with us for decades. Oil and gas reserves close to shore can be produced by horizontal drilling, but beyond a few kilometres the petroleum industry will need platforms to drill from and produce to, and pipelines and other systems to bring the petroleum ashore and transport it to markets. Those structures have to operate safely in an extremely demanding environment. The ocean is cold and rough, and for much of the year it will be covered with ice, often in very large pieces. Ice pushes against structures with great force, and drags along the seabed, strongly enough to cut huge gouges. Sometimes the seabed will be partly frozen, and anything we do may alter the thermal regime and thaw or freeze the seabed soil, greatly modifying its physical properties. Almost all the problems of offshore construction in lower latitudes are still present, and there are storm waves and high winds, tidal currents, shifting seabeds and the added challenge of long periods of winter darkness...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 900 | | Comments (0)

Deepwater Petroleum Exploration and Production - A Nontechnical Guide

   As with any foray into a new frontier, history and innovation have been happening almost every day since our first edition's publication date. As in the first edition, our first two chapters of the book will bring you from the first geologic toe-in-the-water in California more than hundred years ago to stepping off the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico into thousands of feet of water. That journey is just the prelude to understanding present and even future deepwater operations. To complete the setting, this edition adds a new complete chapter on geology and geophysics. To pull this off, we asked four accomplished scientists in the field, Stephen Sears, Fred Keller, Tim Garfield, and Mike Forrest, all with decades of experience with large exploration and production (E&P) organizations, to contribute chapter 3. The processes for exploring, developing, and producing petroleum in the deepwater are about the same as for the shelf or, really, the onshore. From the outside, just four steps take place—explore, appraise, develop, and produce. From the inside, each of these processes takes many more steps, depending on how closely we look. And we look closer in chapters 4 through 13, even more closely than in the first edition. We have added other new chapters on the drilling rigs and service vessels used in the deepwater...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1099 | | Comments (0)

Offshore Operation Facilities - Equipment and Procedures

   After Dagang Oil Field was discovered in 1964, which was called Plant 641 at that time, the Chinese offshore oil industry started in 1965 when the Ministry of Petroleum Industry decided to "go to the sea." Although offshore oil began 70 years later in China than in the rest of the world, through decades of hard work, China's offshore oil and gas exploration and development has witnessed astonishing progress and thus has made great achievements that attract worldwide attention. China has discovered six big oil and gas basins in the 130*10 m2 offshore continental shelf of the Bohai Sea, South Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South Sea Pearl River Mouth, Yinggehai in Beibu Gulf, and the shallow water of Taiwan Strait. It is estimated that China has an abundance in offshore oil and gas resources with (150 ~ 200) x 10s t of oil resources and 14 x 1012 m3 of natural gas resources. By creating the Foreign Cooperative Exploitation of Offshore Petroleum Resources Act in 1982, China established China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC, for short). Against this backdrop, China's offshore oil industry took a new step. Over the past 20 years, China has been following the principle of foreign cooperation while maintaining independent management; at the same time, China has insisted on the innovation of systems and technology, as well as following the path of internationalized development. In terms of offshore oil and gas development and production, China has achieved continuously high-speed and high-efficiency performance. Oil production developed from an annual output of 8 x 104 t in 1982 to 4293 x 104 t in 2008 (equivalent to total oil and gas production in that year). Take the CNOOC as an example: Its gross assets reached CNY 428.5 billion with its net assets reaching CNY 291.6 billion, and its sales volume, gross profit, and taxes paid that year reached CNY 198.3 billion, 67.7 billion, and 56.9 billion, respectively. This made a significant contribution to the national economy...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1396 | | Comments (0)

An Introduction to Marine Drilling

   Over the years. I have seen many changes in the industry from the period of growth in the I970's to our present day recession. I have had .the privilege to witness first hand some outstanding advances in techniques and technology and yet for me at least, drilling remains something of a mystery. Infamous for its jargon, it is as complex as it is fascinating. It is therefore a particular pleasure to discover, after so many years, a book which is both readable and comprehensive, and which succeeds in revealing to me, as I am sure it will do for all its readers, whatever their level of interest, something of the "black art" of drilling. It also gives me pleasure to think that much of the authors knowledge arises from his connection with Houlders. First as a cadet on the "Worcester" established at Ingress Abbey on the Thames, my Grandfathers home and more recently during his time offshore with the company. Houlder Marine Drilling is the offspring of the shipping company founded by my Grandfather in 1848. Interest in drilling arose in about 1973 as the result of a chance conversation with a Norwegian shipowner who introduced me to Bernard Larsen, another shipowner, who I believe to have originated the conceptual design for the famous H-3. Just as the author learned from Houlder, so Houlder in turn had learned from the established drilling industry which in turn had learned from the Moho project. This was to discover by drilling, the composition of the core of the earth. As much as possible was to be drilled through water, and I think that the drillship owes more to the Moho technology than to the offshore shallows of Louisiana.

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1061 | | Comments (0)

Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures

   Principles of corrosion; Corrosion types; Monitoring and control of corrosion; Anode materials, testing and quality control; Various offshore structures; CP of offshore pipeline risers together with their associated equipment; Coating for corrosion prevention; High-efficiency coating and cathodic protection, testing and efficiency; Introduction to retrofitting; Corrosion control for existing offshore pipelines; Assessment of the corrosion and cathodic protection system; New approach to CP design to new pipelines; Attenuation modeling for various offshore pipelines; International regulatory bodies addressing corrosion...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1586 | | Comments (0)

Environmental Load Factors and System Strength Evaluation of Offshore Jacket Platforms

   API RP2A Working Stress Design (WSD) forms the basis of offshore steel Jacket platform design all over the world and has proved to be accepted design standard since it was first issued in 1969. WSD is a factor of safety-based code which is derived from WSD theory and reduces the ultimate resistance strength to allowable stress for safe design. In WSD. minimum resistance results from test results of yield strength and for load from past experience; thus, safety factor was inherent in these codes though not apparent. Since the loads/resistances are varying, the assumptions used in WSD design process, i.e. a single factor of safety for all load combinations, cannot maintain a constant level of structural safety. WSD method uses safety factors without taking into consideration the uncertainties, and it assumes that all variables are deterministic. Thus, safety of platform is achieved by WSD through the use of a factor of safety against the inherent uncertainties of load and resistance. For allowable stress design, safety of structure is achieved by the use of a safety factor against the uncertainties of load using some arbitrary experience and judgment like 1/3 decrease for allowable stresses. This method provides no knowledge about effects of various random variable parameters on the safety of Jacket platform...

Category: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY | Views: 1022 | | Comments (0)

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