The main content of this volume prepared by Judith van Leeuwen, is presenting a culmination of a very interesting and important research project performed by the author, whose intention was to thoroughly explore the idea of the environmental governance of the maritime/offshore industry, looking from the historical perspective. The book opens with some introductory information, including the general info on the marine environment, governance, research questions etc. The following chapter of has been mainly dedicated to the changing spheres of authority in the environmental governance, while the third chapter is dealing with the research methodology while the fourth and fifth chapters address changing authority in the maritime/offshore field. The other chapter is focusing on the comparison conducted of the environmental governance of the offshore vs shipping industries. The closing chapter of the volume contains the conclusions and reflection. The main portion of the document has been supplemented with the references and several appendices, summary, info on the conceptual framework, various established methods of research plus associated questions. The environment protection is quite a new field of research and study, and that is the basic reason why there are no too many sources of info available on the subject matters. This, in turn, is what makes the present volume so valuable to all interested persons.
Today, marine ecosystems shall definitely be considered quite a wide topic that includes so many different processes, geographical peculiarities and different groups of various bio-organisms. The present publication is a sort of collection of topics that in fact are not directly related to the matters stated above but rather telling the readers about the research that has been already conducted by groups of professional scientists that have been working all around the world; the only common element is the search for the excellence of the authors. This book contains eleven chapters, with the opening chapter covering the threats that are there to the ultraoligoscopic systems. This chapter is followed by the one describing the process of modelling the dynamics of the pelagic ecosystem in north-west Mediterranean area. The remaining chapters of this book address the meiofauna as an instrument to be used for the bio-monitoring of the marine system, ecophysiology and evolution of the labytinthulomycetes, limiting the impact of bottom trawling, hydrocarbon contamination, chemical interactions, marine spatial planning, proper mapping of the seabed, plus some other really important issues. A good and useful publication aimed at all people having the real interest in marine ecosystems, taking into account the amount of the material as well as the way of presenting.
The technology and science of today equips us with increasingly complex methods of studying the ocean. The intention of the person who wrote this book was to introduce readers to the contemporary problems of marine physics and to explain all mechanisms of the fundamental physical processes happening in the sea together with their inter-relationships. The purpose was to enable the readers to embark on a further study of marine physics. The author has made an attempt to produce a proper synthesis of the results obtained in the course of the latest researches in the field of marine physics, while maintaining the manageable size of the publication. The text part of the volume has been limited to a discussion of the physical properties of the seawater, thermodynamical processes that occur in the sea, as well as the transfer of sound waves and sun light in the sea, mass exchanges, air-sea interaction and other critically important matters. All classic problems have been covered within this book, such as sea waves, currents and tides; however, if you want to get the detailed information on these, you would better refer to the numerous relevant textbooks that are available. The volume will definitely be of service to a broad range of interested readers...
This popular publication has already been widely recognized by all lovers of ocean and all people interested in marine environment, it was published by the NGDC, i.e. National Geographic Data Center. The questions that have been selected for this book are quite typical and popular. One of the purposes of this volume is to supply the correct answers to the commonly asked questions on marine science and oceanography. It present factual materials to be used by younger people at literally all grades with the intention to stimulate their imagination and further interest to the subject, provoking the further study. Another goal of the authors was to provide the teachers with the suitable intro to selected marine science subjects. Each of the questions and corresponding answers is followed by specific references containing some additional info on that topic. Of course, it should be understood that the answers presented in the volume might not cover some very subtle details and relevant complexities, taking into account that the authors have tried to limit the answers with 350 words to keep the book reasonably sized. Particular attention has been paid by them to presenting the answers in a very understandable manner so that the students of secondary schools could use it easily. As a result, considerable part of the book can even be used by junior readers.
Today, the world ocean affects the lives of all people, and the author of the present volume, Tom Garrison, has made an excellent attempt to show all readers how exactly it does. He is taking readers on a very interesting exploration of the ocean, covering all important areas such as global warming and changing coastlines, zoo-plankton and plastics problem which is growing quite dangerously. The Hurricane Katrina together with earthquake in the Indian Ocean have also been addressed. This book will be very useful for people willing to gain a good and thorough understanding of the ocean wonders and get the correct answers to the specific questions surrounding it with the remarkably fascinating text presented in the publication. The material included by the author brings the basics and goes a bit further and has been accompanied by numerous informative illustrations and images making it so easy to understand. We would for sure say that it will be equally ideal for people first introduced to the science of oceanography and to ones trying to evolve their knowledge. The boon incorporates many basic elements of geology and meteorology making a great and useful addition to the library of any person with the interest in marine science and oceanography.
The present fourth edition of this OCIMF publication (first published in several decades ago, in 1971 and subsequently revised three times) in order to reflect the industry developments. This release edition does not contain any significant changes to the content of the document relating to the cargo/bunker manifolds as well as any associated equipment on board. However, the authors of this volume have added a completely new Annex to the main body of the paper, willing to take into consideration the technical requirements that are there in a number of terminals and applicable to the tankers to transfer the cargo vapors to the shore-located facilities. We would also like to underline the fact that those recommendations have been provided with the sole intention to provide the required regulatory guidance to the operators of the vessels trading to the terminals where the installation of the vapor collection systems is mandatory. The recommendations are supplementing the IMO-developed uniform safety design standards that are applicable to the shipboard marine vapor recovery systems as well as the USCG-issued regulations addressing the same matter. They shall only be treated as relating to the uniform manifold arrangements and shall not be considered applicable in any other cases.
The present OCIMF publication starts with a brief historical overview of the programme which was worked out and implemented by OCIMF some decades ago with the sole intention to provide all the members of this organization with the opportunity to release and submit the ship inspection reports for distribution. The participation in the subject programme is fully voluntary. Two revisions were made to this programme in 1997 and 2007 years and they have also been dealt with within the paper, together with the procedure for the uniform vessel inspection. The second section of the book contains the questionnaires to be used during the vessel inspections, as well as the inspector manuals. The third section is mainly dedicated to the VIQ, standing for the "vessel inspection questionnaire", and its availability to ship operators. The remaining sections cover the conduct of inspections, distribution of the reports, some general notes, certification and associated documentation, management of the ship's crew, ship navigation issues, safety management, prevention of the marine pollution, cargo handling/ballasting systems of the vessel - petroleum/chemical/gas, mooring arrangements, communication, machinery and steering compartments of the vessel, general appearance and technical condition of the ship. All information that has been provided in the present publication was verified to be fully up-to-date and definitely practical.
The present Guide was prepared and released in accordance with the relevant technical requirements of the MARPOL Conventions and associated interpretations with the intention to be used together with them. Please note however that this paper is not dealing with the requirements related to the construction/equipment. Under the Annex I of the Convention any discharge of oil or oil-containing mixture is prohibited from the oil tankers, including the mixtures coming from the bilges located in the cargo pump rooms, within a distance of fifty nautical miles from the nearest land. In addition, the flow and concentration, as well as the quantity of the substances discharges anywhere else are also limited. Obviously, the only way to ensure due compliance with these limitations is to adhere to the oil retention procedures. Those procedures would typically involve the collection and separation of any oily waters appearing as a result of tank cleaning/ballasting operations. These mixtures are to be accumulated in a special tanks to be subsequently disposed of somewhere ashore. This volume is mainly concerned with these procedures and their application; the information contained in this document will be of great importance and practical use to the crew members as well as to all other personnel involved in the above stated operations.
NFPA 25 was first released in 1992 with the declared purpose being the promote the activities and certain sections were specifically pertaining to fire pumps. NFPA fully recognizes that the installation standards such as NFPA 20 or maintenance document such as NFPA 25 must be suitable for enforcement and, as a result, must be concise and without explanatory text. Additionally, it must be acknowledged that such standards cannot be written to cover every situation that could be encountered. Therefore, NFPA 20 and NFPA 25 must be applied with judgment, the application of good sense, and an awareness of the rationale for the requirements. To assist in this task, NFPA, in partnership with the NFSA, has developed the Fire Pump Handbook. The present publication is intended to provide users of NFPA 20 and applicable portions of NFPA 25 with background information on certain requirements. The book also contains some suggestions on how certain provisions of the standards can be implemented effectively. The contents of the handbook are intended to provide users of NFPA 20 and NFPA 25 with a better understanding and appreciation of the documents. However, the reader is cautioned to look upon the commentary and other supporting information as views of the editors and contributing authors. Only the contents of NFPA 20 and NFPA 25 are considered the official position of NFPA.
This guidance was produced by SIGTTO to members' concerns about the some of the interpretations of the functional requirements for emergency shutdown systems; in particular, differences between the needs of the liquid natural gases industry and those of liquid petroleum gases industry. It was also aimed to encourage and promote the use of linked emergency shutdown systems at both LPG and LNG terminals, especially where cargo transfer rates are quite high or where they handle one of the cargoes stated in IGC Code 1993/Chapter 17. However, this SIGTTO publication is not intended to contradict any international or national requirements or standards for operational practices at the liquefied gas ship-shore interface. One of the primary objectives of this guidance was to advise the operators/owners of gas carriers about the rollover-related issues. The rollover itself mainly refers to the quick release if the LNG vapor occurring when the layers of different densities of LNG are spontaneously mixed in a cargo or storage tank. While for the conventional onshore terminals all such issues are known and understood, for LNG vessels the associated circumstances are a bit unusual and have to be paid serious additional attention...
This latest edition of the textbook published by McGuire and White was published by Witherby in 2000 and covers following important aspects of the liquefied gases transportation and handling, as properties and basic information on liquefied gases, ship equipment and instrumentation, principles of gas carrier design, terminal equipment and instrumentation, the ship-shore interface, cargo measuring and control, cargo handling operations, emergency procedures and personal health-and-safety issues. This publication has been initially established as the standard guide covering the operational side of the shipping industry; the book should be treated as the completely independent companion that is to be used in the course of the professional training for the operational qualifications. As it was a case with two previous editions of the textbook, it is dealing with the issues related to the safe handling of liquefied gases in bulk and emphasized the importance of proper understanding of physical characteristics of such cargoes with regard to the practical operation of the associated equipment on board vessels and at terminals. It is primarily intended to be used by the ship officers and other people bearing responsibility for the operations.
This presentation by SIGTTO applies to the valves installed on board liquid petroleum gas vessels, but it can provide guidance to such valves on LPG terminals, as well. It is intended to serve as a supplemental guide to be used together with the relevant standards and codes for LPG valves and shall not override them. In this book such an important issues as valve design, specific design consideration for ESD (emergency shutdown) valves, valve testing, material requirements and codes and standards, have been addressed. The publication is mostly intended to provide necessary technical guidance to the designers and/or operators on the applicable general requirements for valves for LPG service, designed for an operating temperature ranging between -55 and +80 degrees Celsius. Though the document was specifically developed to apply to LPG vessels, the provisions contained in it may be equally applied throughout the liquefied petroleum gas industry. Note, however, that this paper shall not override any national/international standards or codes. The appendix at the last part of the document provides considerations to be taken into account during the periods of construction and maintenance.
The purpose of the present SIGTTO publication is to provide a proper explanation of how insulation flanges protect from ignition caused by arcing. It contains information on the inductive circuits, electrical characteristics of the cargo transfer hoses together with the supporting calculations, some examples of the effects of hose inductance and resistance, information on the effect of capacitance, testing of the flanges and multiple loading arms and parallel circuits, all supplemented with the list of definitions and conclusions and recommendations. The insulation flanges have been used for several decades; their effectiveness is sometimes seriously challenged, though there have been no reported fire incidents on the manifolds installed on board of tankers or gas carriers. This shall be taken into consideration by the ship operators having a background of road tanker operations, supplying the LNG as fuel oil. Since this document mainly concentrates on the protection from arcing-caused fires, we would definitely consider it very important and recommended to everyone involved in such sort of operations as the info provided in the booklet might help in improving the operational safety.
Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems. As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others. This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.
The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed. The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation. Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...
The main purpose of the present guide is to provide a thorough reference which might be useful to various port authorities as well as operating management of LNG carriers and terminals in reviewing or developing their planning in order to avoid the accidents or at lease reduce their possibility. The publication would also be quite helpful in controlling the possible consequences of such accidents happening within the port limits. This second (revised) edition takes into account the STCW Convention and SOLAS IX as well as the ISM Code. It covers ships in transit and operation, ships alongside, public relations and periodic review. Note, however, that the present publication shall not be treated as a comprehensive technical manual on contingency planning since the authors have confined this document to the aspect directly relating to the carriage and handling of gases. The circumstances influencing the contingency planning may vary from port to ports in the matters such as nautical/weather considerations, types of cargo being handled, authorities etc. When preparing this document, broader interpretation of the term "contingency planning" was taken, including considerations related to the accident prevention and control of possible consequences.
The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning. The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry. The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.
Another official publication developed and released by IACS - this one deals with the single deck container vessels constructed with the double side skin tanks, the passageways and double bottom in the area treated as the cargo space. These vessels are exclusively intended to transport containerized cargoes in their cargo holds as well as on the deck and on top of hatch covers. The publication starts with the intro, followed by the chapter containing the applicable classification requirements for periodical surveys as well as damage/repair; the next chapter provides some necessary technical background that is to be possessed by the people conducting the surveys; then there is a chapter addressing the survey preparation/planning/execution matters. The book also provides the important information of the failures of the structural parts and instructions on the repairs to be done. These Guidelines will be very useful for any surveyor performing the above mentioned surveys as well as to any ship owner, or operator, or even any crew member dealing with preparation of the vessel for class inspection and presenting all relevant items to the surveyor. The instructions provided in the book are really the ones to be followed in order to keep the ship safe.
The present IACS Manual was prepared and officially released to the marine industry by IACS in order to provide people with the guidelines for bulk carriers with a single deck and single skin, with the double bottom, with hopper side and topside tanks. The vessels addressed by this Manual are primarily intended for the marine transportation of the dry cargo in bulk. The authors of the book mostly focus on the survey procedures established by the classification societies forming the IACS, but it will also be very useful in connection with the examination schemes of any owners, ship operators, or regulatory bodies other than class. The publication includes a good review of the survey preparation instructions covering all relevant safety aspects in connection with the performance of the surveys, required access facilities, and preparation for surveys. The guidelines encompass the main areas of the hull where the structural damages have been noted with the focus made on the key features of the structural items. Another feature of this book is that in includes a special section illustrating the examples of structural damage and deterioration and explains the possible causes and recommended repairs. The team of authors developed this publication using the best info available.
The objective of the present document is to provide the workers of the chemical industry with the best practice recommendation that shall be taken into consideration at the time of the inerting process as well as during the future revisions of the associated legislation and chemical industry guidelines. It is directed towards anyone involved with chemical tankers - crew members, shore personnel, marine surveyors, charterers and inspectors, and others. Though this booklet is not directed towards the other types of vessels, the greater part of the information contained in the document may be applicable to them, as well, in case the nitrogen is used. Today, it is expected that the use of N2 in the maritime industry will continue to increase, and this will definitely lead to the increase in the accidents that usually happen when the nitrogen is not handled properly. We recognize that the implementation of the recommended practice might have an impact on the operational and commercial aspects of both ships, terminals, and the shipping industry as a whole, which, in turn, may cause the other changes to help mitigate such impacts. Have a look into this paper and you will have a lot of practical technical information that you will find useful.