It's a fine day, good visibility, calm seas, perfect weather for a passage, and yet this tanker is sailing towards danger. It is about to bring together a large explosive atmosphere with sources of ignition; in fact, it is playing with fire. If all goes well, no one will ever know; but if it goes badly, the results could be devastating, and everyone will hear about it... Tank cleaning is one of the most critical and dangerous stages of any cargo carriage. If not conducted properly, it brings together things that are best to be kept apart - explosive atmospheres, sparks, toxic fumes, and personnel. It is a time consuming and often complex operation, but the benefits are clear. Both sludge build-up and contamination can significantly reduce a vessel's effectiveness, service quality and profitability. They can also impact health and safety. Every year, many seamen die in accidents. Often, these involve enclosed space entry. It is the vessel's responsibility to arrive at the terminal ready to take cargo. And, the vessel has a duty to care to customers, too. Every year, port tank cleaning procedures lead to substantial costs through delays to loading schedules, port fines and legal damages which have run into many hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tank cleaning is normally undertaken on ballast voyages between loads, when changing cargo types or when changing charterer...
The present book is intended to describe the marine engines as well as the auxiliary motors and systems of propulsion that are usually found on smaller commercial vessels having a length of not more than 80 meters and the displacement of less than 500 tons. The main content of the book is arranged in ten major chapters, followed by a glossary of terms used throughout the text of the volume and marine engineering, in general. The first chapter of the book explains the basic principles of the internal combustion engines, covering the operating principles, two- and four-stroke engines, timing and air supply, and protection devices. The second chapter deals with the storage and handling of the fuel, including survey compliance, transfer pumps, contamination, description of the flash point and procedure for safe entering the fuel tanks. The third chapter continues the fuel theme and concentrates on the supply, injection and control of the fuel oil, covering the petrol and diesel fuel systems, governors and injection pumps, troubleshooting etc. The chapter dedicated to the lubricating system provides the information on the purpose and components of these systems, oils and additives, contamination issues, as well as analysis and servicing. Then, there are separate chapters on the cooling, gearing, tailshafts, propellers, propulsion systems, outboard and inboard motors.
Nowadays, the maritime transport plays a truly dominant role in the international trade, serving it and significantly contributing to it's development. More than ninety percent f the traded goods are transported by means of vessels, making these vessels an essential asset, one of the fundamental ones for the global commerce. Merchant ships are becoming more and more complex to meet the increasing demands of the world economy. This work by Lief Bleyen is focusing on a very specific aspect of maritime claim enforcement - judicial sales of ships, as it is stated in the title. This is a procedure that the creditors commonly resort to in the cases of the irreversible default situations. A significant portion of this volume approaches the above mentioned topic from a comparative perspective, and the main goal is the assessment of the existing differences and similarities of this procedure between the jurisdictions of Belgium, England & Wales, and the Netherlands. In the present volume, the comparison is used by the author to conduct the further analysis of the potential impacts these differences might have on the reliability and effectiveness of the sale procedure in each of the named jurisdiction, forming the basis for the assessment of the feasibility of harmonizing procedures as well as fostering the acceptance of these procedures...
This rare publication by Jacqueline Kranz contains more than three hundred of illustrations and provides readers with the very useful and, at the same time, entertaining surveys of the nautical antiques and antiques - we would definitely treat this book as a genuine treasure-house for both beginners and experienced collectors, in fact any people accumulating these objects for years. The author has succeeded in literally infecting readers with her enthusiasm for collecting the art- and antique- objects relating to the nautical world, through the researched interesting facts and a real wealth of appropriate photos and drawings, supplemented with the lively personal anecdotes. The book not only provides the valuable information on all most desirable collectibles plus their relative values, but also gives the advice about numerous unusual objects that would otherwise go unrecognized by the novices. The topics covered by this publication cover a very broad range of categories, starting from the expected ones, such as figureheads and paintings, half-models, lanterns, wheels, anchors and various navigational tools, to the unexpected categories, for example toys and games, porcelain, glass, sheet music and so many others. The book contains specific tips on finding and properly identifying the articles, plus many yarns about the collectibles associated with the Great Lakes, Mississippi and other inland waterways...
One more issue of the Alert. Nowadays, the image of the shipping industry in the eyes of the general society is not that good, rarely hearing any positive news. People are, instead, usually informed of the vessels in difficulties in stormy conditions, groundings and pollution of the surrounding environment. They are commonly told about the maritime piracy taking place in some parts of the world ocean, ship masters jailed for misdemeanor etc. People who are familiar with the maritime internet resources read the articles berating the current state of the shipping industry, and the life at sea, in particular. For sure, there will be numerous comments concerning the over-regulation, excessive paperwork and constantly increasing number of checks, reduced manning of ships, fatigue problems, owners not caring about the seafarers and not investing any part of their profits in the human element. It is not said everywhere that the maritime industry is a high-tech one, and that is because, regardless of the level of automation introduced into a vessel, there is always a need for human to keep that vessel operating. These is also a demand for pilots and ship managers, marine surveyors, regulators and investigators of the accidents, experts and all other specialists, all of whom should better e coming from seafaring backgrounds. Use this short video as a supplement.
Sorry, I am a bit depressed... I mean our industry, it is all doom and gloom, isn't it?.. Every time you pick up the paper, there is a story about the collision, an oil spill somewhere, pirates... You turn on TV and it seems that every day our seafarers are arrested and thrown into jail. You see what I mean? We could take a different view. The fact is shipping is responsible for over ninety percent of the world's trade. It's a high-tech industry that opens huge opportunities. Yes, it has its problems, but in this issue of Alert let's go positive. There are some who criticize the state of shipping and life at sea today. We hear comments about over-regulation, too much paperwork and huge number of inspections, and so many other problems in the shipping industry. And that is quite disappointing - because it is not as if young people do not want to go to sea, but clearly there are some concerns. One survey reveals that, although increasing workloads and paperwork, fatigue and criminalization are viewed as potential career killers, the modern seafarer is looking for greater contact with families and friends, above everything else. Telephone access, in particular, would seem to be crucial. Voyage length and shore leave are also the factors that are very significant to the seafarers today... This video film supplements the corresponding issue of Alert 19 bulletin.
The content of the present handbook is mainly based on the experience gained by the authors during their in total four-year voyages. The authors express their hope that the information included in the volume will be useful to the people interested in cruising. The book starts with the introductory part providing the general information about the basics of seamanship. Then, the second chapter named "Starting-off", provides readers with necessary tips on buying a boat and also contains an article covering the cruising life in general. This one is followed by a "How to's" chapter giving the idea of anchoring activities, boat notes, book of lists, deck log and defect book, departure checklist and other relevant paperwork, nautical chart management, equipment instructions, maintenance schedule etc. Remaining chapters of this interesting and fascinating book shed the light on various possible situations that the seamen may face at sea, including emergency situations, getting aground, fire on board, leaking hull, heavy weather conditions, rigging failures, crew overboard, steering failure etc. The book addresses the marine radio communications, navigation techniques and equipment used, fog and sound signals, medical emergencies, using radar and so many other important and useful topics that would definitely help any cruiser.
This Handbook provides a remarkably complete and truly consistent technical overview of the methods, products and applications in marine biotechnology. We know that the large portion of the earth surface, more than seventy percent, is covered by water, and more than eighty percent of all organisms living on our planet are found there, in aquatic eco-systems. We may thus say that the aquatic ecosystems constitute a very rich natural reservoir for the various chemical/biochemical materials and processes. This handbook has been edited by a world recognized expert and was prepared owing to more than sixty invaluable contributions provided by the world leading international scientists - this made the book a major desk reference tool for all people with the interest or working activity in marine biotechnology, bioprocessing or any other relevant fields, including professionals, scientists and students of all levels. Se-Kwon Kim, the editor of the handbook, has divided the content into ten chapters, each of them is organized very consistently and, as a result, the publication can provide a sound intro to the marine biotechnology, starting from the historical overview and basics, over the technical descriptions of the established methods and technologies, and to the applications of these methods and technologies. Note that it is also perfect when used as a reference book. The key topics of the handbook include marine flora/fauna, genomics and microbiology, tools and methods, biofuels and bioenergy, bioproducts and so many more...
The Corps of Engineers of the United States Army can deservedly take pride in the invaluable contributions throughout the American history to the proper developments of the infrastructure of the waterways, together with the navigation and environment restoration, reduction of the flood damage and protection and development of the water resources. And many projects were made possible owing to the dedication and creativity of outstanding engineers, builders and scientists. The Corps has always performed the review of the processes relating to the evaluation of the project planning, often focusing mainly on their technical aspects. However, in the past decades the consideration of such important factors as the economic evaluations, impacts on the environment, political pressure and others, have significantly increased, resulting in the rising criticism and even the concern that the Corps' studies lead to the recommendations and conclusions not adequately supported by the analyses and scientific assumptions used. The present document has been arranged in seven chapters. The first chapter defines the purpose and scope of the report, and the second chapter provides some historical background of the planning studies; the other chapters of the book provide the considerations and principles of the review, alternative approaches, administrative group and recommendations, supplemented with numerous appendices with additional information.
The present excellent collection of documents has been made of the selected papers and presentations of the IMO-WMU Global R&D Forum relating to the Emerging BWM Systems held some years back in Sweden. Nowadays, the great demand is there within the maritime industry for the development of the environmentally-friendly and also efficient BWM systems. Taking this demand into account, the today's technological community has been dealing with the active developing of the various BWM systems to be able to cater to the emerging market of the ballast water technology, The systems in question have to undergo various applicable approval processes including the testing as per the established testing procedures, in compliance with the requirements of the BWM Convention plus the Guidelines. While several systems are currently under development or approval process, testing among the BWM system TF, i.e. test facilities worldwide shows the gaps in the harmonization and methodology. This has significantly contributed to the confusion and lack of confidence among the people involved in the development of the subject systems, and also among the ship owners. Therefore, it is really imperative that the end-users of the BWM systems have enough confidence that consistent and reliable testing methodologies are applied.
The volume is a result of the collective efforts by the world leading and recognized experts in the industry, bringing together numerous valuable assorted contributions that were presented in the course of the OS-017, standing for the Ocean Science Session, and the Joint Assembly that were both held in Singapore some years back. The chapters of the present publication are dealing with the modeling and the assessment of the dispersal communication incoming with SGD in the coastal areas affected by tsunami, numerical simulation applied to the coastal sediment transport by the earthquake tsunami which occurred in Tohoku-Oki in 2011, database of the tsunami events, raw/processed water level information, simulations of the tsunamis in the Western Pacific Ocean and in the East China Sea aroused from the earthquakes that took place along the Nankai-Suruga trough, various negative consequences of tsunamis on the ecosystem services, discussion related to the interaction of tsunami with fringing coral reef, effects of the wave erosion caused by tsunamis on the natural landscapes, concatenated hazards, floods, tropical cyclones and climate change, vertical evaluation system, contribution of the multiple wave arrivals to the duration of the tsunami and the damage caused, and so many other relevant and indeed critically important topics.
Despite of the implications of relevant decisions made on PSSA by the IMO, subject concept has not yet received too much of academic interest. That is why the present book by Dr. Julian Roberts bringing the serious value to this issue very timely. The author is providing the industry with the introduction to the complete legal framework of the protection of the marine environment and regulation of the shipping activities; in addition, he looked into the development of the whole PSSA concept and provides a very detailed examination of the applicable requirements. The author has also looked in detail at the way subject requirements are applied by the IMO Committees. In his work, he is developing a critique of the actual practical application of the requirements and is suggesting that the guidelines that have been developed, have sometimes been applied not logically with not enough procedural and scientific rigor. Moreover, in this work the other regimes of protection of the marine environment have also been examined. He performs the analysis of the regional congestion areas and provides readers with the ammunition for the completely new strategic approaches in the area. The recommendations provided by the author are very practical and thoughtful.
The present classic and quite rare volume is fully addressing the parabolic approximation to a problem of wave diffraction over a sea surface. While the established method of parabolic equation in propagation of the radio waves over the earth surface was first introduced by V. Fok nearly half a century ago, it has been observed that the popularity of subject method has grown quite drastically because of the ongoing development of the new computational methods, and this is done on the basis of the parabolic approximation. This, in turn, resulted in the evolvement and further utilization of the several computational techniques applied to the analysis of propagation of the acoustic waves and radio waves in deterministic and random media. The publication is mainly concerned with the such important problem as the wave propagation over the sea surface in the atmospheric boundary layer and the analytical solution to this problem. The author has covered two basic math methods, depending mainly on the ease of getting the closed analytical solution. However, the publication has not been intended to provide a complete step-by-step background to those mathematical methods; it is rather dedicated to the analysis and application of the different physical mechanisms directly associated with the diffraction, scattering and refraction, and their combined effect...
Suppose for a minute, what if you have been assigned the task to perform the mapping of the general circulation in some completely unfamiliar ocean. The ocean is sub-divided into several basins as well as marginal seas which, in turn, are connected with each others by means of the sea straits. Taking into consideration the possible budget limits for this task, you would most probably choose the sea straits as the starting points for the observation. To start with, the ocean currents that flow between the basins, over the wide paths that can also be time-varying, are commonly confined to the relatively stable and narrow routes within those straits. Such confinement could result in the profound dynamical consequences, one of them being the choking/hydraulic control; subject process is quite similar to a process by which a dams are regulating the flows from the reservoirs. Geometry of the funneling may lead to the significantly increased velocities and enhanced tidal modulation, which would in turn lead to the local instabilities, internal bores, plus jumps and mixing, and other events. Shortly, the straits shall be treated as the choke points being dynamically and observationally strategic and containing a broad range of physical processes, all of them being addressed wthin this book.
Nowadays, we may observe a constantly growing concern about the state of the oceans. The significant and very rapid growth of population in coastal areas has eventually led to the increased dependence of the people on the existing marine resources. Some of the beneficial features relating to the life style and food supply require to be duly balanced against the hazards that are commonly presented by the chemical pollutants, various microbial pathogens and other sources. This book provides a good professional review of the several key aspects of the marine environment in its relation to the human health - the content of the book has been compiled on the basis of the very valuable contributions by a group of recognized experts from a wide range of backgrounds. In the initial overview, the need for the integration of a range of various relevant disciplines, including marine biology, epidemiology, physical oceanography and molecular biology is explained. The authors hope that such approach will play a good role in predicting the possible consequences of the changes to environment and exploitation of the existing resources upon the coastal eco-systems and, eventually, on the human health. The chapters of the book are providing the analysis in several specialized topics that will for sure be found very useful by the specialists in the field.
The book provides readers with the remarkably comprehensive explanation of the processes of photosynthesis relating to the special environment where the marine plants live. It has been evaluated by the readers as a detailed, very professional and really up-to-date publication which is nicely written and is also very easy to follow regardless if it is used by students or professionals. In the first part of the publication the authors introduce the readers to the wide range of the existing and known photosynthesizing organisms among the sea habitats, including the algae, phytoplankton living in open sea waters, different marine angiosperms and others. The authors have also considered the evolutionary origins of the above stated marine organisms. Then, they have discussed some of the specific properties of the sea water for sustaining the primary production, and examined the two key differences between marine and terrestrial environments in supporting both plant growth and the process of photosynthesis. This part of the book is followed by the discussion about the needs of the plants for the enhancement of their inorganic supply of carbon, and the description of how the mechanisms concentrating such carbon dioxide function in various marine plants. The third part is dealing with the ways in which the process of photosynthesis can be treated as a proxy for the growth and productivity of marine plants.
This excellent volume is providing the informative insights into several important aspects of the marine faunal communities in the Indian region. Subject communities are considered extremely diversed, taking into account both climatic and geo-morphologic variations that can be observed along the coast of India. The publication consists of thirty chapters written based on the valuable contributions provided by the world recognized experts in the relevant fields. The editors have divided the main content of the book into two major parts, with the first half covering the tropical marine faunal communities, and the second part addressing the problems of the ecology and conservation. The first part is mainly intended to provide readers with the highlight of the distribution and biological diversity of Foraminifera, echinoderms, oysters, fishes and crabs, horseshoe and Polychaets, various sponges commonly associated with the sea grass, various fish parasites and other representatives of marine fauna. In turn, the second half of the publication includes the current status and relevant environmental parameters of benthos, together with the coral reefs, snowflake coral invasion, conservation and management of the biological diversity in the region, protected areas, methods of recovery of the bleached corals etc. The editors hope that the volume will be of some use for marine scientists and environmental managers, as well as to the policy makers.
Here is the very latest release of the publication dedicated to the coastal pollution and providing readers with an excellent revision of the materials that were contained there in the first edition, together with the remarkably lucid expansion of its content. The current publication is still preserving the most important technical aspects of the coastal pollution and continues to enlighten the vignettes that have been already recorded there in the original release of the volume. The main content of this title has been arranged in three separate sections, recounting several horrow real life stories based on the consequences following the coastal pollution events, surveying the potential effects the coastal pollution may have or resource species, for example on marine mammals as well as fish and shellfish; moreover, various serious effects of the coastal pollution on human beings has also been dealt with in the book. The publication closes with the chapter containing the conclusions and offering several professional predictions for both near and distant future. The author's primary intention was actually to go far beyond the discussion in any single area, therefore he applied all his professional experience as a sort of lens providing reader with better and perfectly documented technical understanding of the impact that human has on the marine environment.
This volume has been released with the intention of it's editor, J. Nihoul, who prepared it trying to compile in a single volume, all proceedings of the XIX International Colloquium on the problems of ocean hydrodynamics. The program of the subject conference was focusing on the relationships existing there between large- and small-scale features, together with the associated processes and transports. The volume presents the valuable articles covering the different methods of parameterization of small-scale turbulent mixing as applied to the numerical ocean models, the presentation of subject papers has been specifically encouraged by the editor, and the application of the subject approach has finally resulted in significant portion of the articles presented during the Colloquium, dealing with the current problems of parameterization. Note that some of the presented docs demonstrated the direct results obtained during the modeling. The volume is well reflecting the above stated proportion and emphasizes the whole importance of the researches oh small-scale turbulence for the practical applications, such as the forecasting and ocean modeling. The book will be equally useful, practical and informative for persons willing to be in the loop of any latest happenings in the subject field.
This valuable and informative plus interesting title presented today was prepared with the sole purpose to define the fundamental engineering principles relating to environmental reaction, for example design of the reactor, being applicable to the developing of the relevant processes that provide any environmental benefit. Touching the matters of prevention of the pollution impacting the surrounding environment, the main accent was placed by Martin Abraham and Robert Hesketh - on newly presented technologies minimizing the production of various undesirable side products causing pollution; however, they have also considered the matters of application of the reaction engineering to the treatment of wastes commonly produced by other means. The opening section of this title mainly concentrates on the environment-friendly combustion, with the three articles addressing the existing methods of reduction of the NOx and PAH formation and it also covers several combustion products sensitive to the environment. The following section of the book includes a good collection of contributions involving the utilization of catalysts to support the reactions. Then, there section comes dedicated to the use of the fluid solvents. Remaining parts of the book contain numerous interesting documents, dealing with some novel reactor designs.