The amount of chemical cargoes transported across oceans increases every year and results in the constantly growing awareness of the demands for developing safe and effective spill response arrangements. However, noting the significantly varying physical properties of chemicals and their behavior once they are spilt, and taking into account the potential effects of the chemical spills to the human health and environment, these preparedness and response arrangements are normally more complex in comparison to the arrangements in case of oil spills.

The present publication will provide all interested parties with brief introduction to the major issues concerned with the response to the chemical spills from ships; it is also intended to address the wide range of the common hazards associated with this type of spills. The authors of the booklet have paid particular attention to the behavior of the spilt chemicals in the sea water and reviewed possible response options.

In fact not all chemicals must be treated as hazardous - this term refers only to the so-called HNS, standing for the hazardous and noxious substances. When introduced into the marine environments, e.g. as a result of a spill, they are likely to create significant hazard to human health, marine environment, living resources, damage amenities etc.

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An effective and proper response to the marine oil spills mainly depends on the preparedness of the individuals and organizations involved. This, in turn, can be enhanced through the development and maintenance of the plan addressing all possible contingencies.

The development and production of the contingency plan will provide the opportunity for the identification of the roles and responsibilities and will also play an important role in defining the associated response strategies and relevant operational procedures with no intense pressures that commonly arise every time a spill occurs.

The present document was released by ITOPF to outline the format and general content of the contingency plans for response to marine spills; it will also highlight the critical steps that are required for the effective planning. The effective response to the ship-source oil spills will normally required numerous decisions to be made quickly.

This is only possible if all parties involved are duly prepared to appreciate the situation and are able to make necessary crucial decisions. They shall also be able to mobilize appropriate resources with no delay and hesitation. A correct and properly developed contingency plan definitely helps in achieving the goal - it is not just another written document - it lists all requirements that are considered necessary for the effective and immediate response...

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The shipboard oil spills commonly cause quite serious financial losses for a wide variety of different organizations as well as individuals. Despite all efforts of the people concerned, the outcome of the clean-up operations are usually costly and protracted. The spilt oil may eventually arrive on a shoreline and this will cause damage to the property and also lead to economic losses, especially affect tourism and fishing industries.

The persons and companies placed at any financial disadvantages are eligible for compensation. The present document was released to provide industry with the guidance on the info that shall be recorded as well as any other sort of evidence supporting claims. It also outlines the process of preparing and submitting claims. The content should be primarily applicable to the marine oil spills, but some of the points will be equally relevant to other spills.

The payment of such compensations will depend on the legal regime within particular country. The country may be signatory to one or more compensation regimes; these international compensation regimes are normally designed to facilitate payment. If the country is not signatory then the compensation will be determined by the national law.

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The technical information paper number fourteen is devoted to sampling and monitoring of the marine oil spills. When the oil spill occurs, the governments and other organizations usually want to know the extent to which the key resources have been impacted. Subject information is very important for determining whether the prompt action is required in order to protect human health as well as sensitive resources.

The decision making may be facilitated by undertaking relevant monitoring programs and such programs normally involve surveys plus collecting oil samples, water and other samples for chemical analysis. The present document is released to provide some general overview of the sampling and monitoring procedures to be followed when performing both quantitative and qualitative monitoring of contamination.

The qualitative analysis of contamination will confirm its source while the monitoring programs are mainly concerned with the changes occurring in the level of hydrocarbons with the course of time. This paper explains the common terminology involved and provides general guidance on the analytical practice. The content of the technical info paper will be of practical interest for the persons engaged in the analysis of the consequences of the marine oil spills.

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This thirteenth technical information paper issued by the ITOPF is dealing with the effects that the oil pollution has on the marine environment. The spills affect the marine environment in a very serious way, this combines the toxic effects and physical smothering. And the severity of their compact commonly depends on both type of the spilt oil and its quantity as well as of the ambient conditions.

Moreover, we have to take into account the sensitivity of the organisms and their habitats affected by the spills. This document was released to describe all the effects f the vessel-source marine oil spills and of the subsequent clean-up activities on the marine flora/fauna. The authors have paid particular attention to the discussion on the complex interactions between the bio-systems and the oil.

The marine oil spills are often referred to by the media as the environmental disasters having extremely negative consequences for the flora and fauna of the sea. The impacts of the spills have been seriously and closely studies by the scientists and the results of the studies are now presented in the numerous technical and scientific publications available today. It means that now we understand all consequences of the oil pollution and the duration and scale of the damage involved...

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Another technical information paper released by the ITOPF organization. The content of this particular one is devoted to the effects that oil pollution may have on the economic and social activities. The economic sectors relying on clean sea water and coastal areas sometimes experience quite significant financial losses in connection with the costs that are incurred in cleaning up the spills.

And, maybe the most serious economic impacts are usually felt in such areas as tourism and fisheries, though many other sectors may be affected including shipping, desalination of the sea water, power plants etc. The present document considers some of the most important effects of spills on the coastal industries as well as social activities duly considering necessary measures to be implemented in order to reduce the impacts of the spills.

Taking into account the particular importance of the spills the authors of this series of technical papers have made a decision to present the relevant information in a separate paper covering tourism, recreational facilities and aquariums, vessel cleaning, marinas, fishing harbors, ports and shipyards, power plants and industrial water intakes, agriculture and salt production, coastal communities etc.

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The marine oil spills can result in very serious damage to the fishery as well as to the various mariculture resources - this is commonly caused by the physical contamination and also different toxic effects; another negative consequence of the oil spills is disruption of the business activities. The extent of the oil spills and their impact on production of the seafood mainly depends on the oil characteristics as well as on the circumstances of the particular incidents and many other factors.

The present technical paper will be describing the effects of the oil pollution from ships providing required guidance on the management strategies and effective spill response measures which may be helpful in reducing the overall severity of the impacts. We know that the mariculture and fishing are considered important industries and they can be affected by the spills in numerous different ways.

For example the plants and animals that are exploited on a commercial basis may get harmed as a result of smothering. Another consequence is contamination of the seafood. Among the chemical and physical characteristics of the oil we would particularly focus on density and viscosity as well as its chemical composition...

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The technical information paper number ten released by ITOPF to address the leadership command and management of the operations during the marine oil spill response. The effectiveness and overall success of the response to the oil spill seriously depends on the quality of leadership demonstrated by the people in command of the operations.

An organizational structure provides it through many decisions and compromises that shall be made at all stages. The present document considers the situations commonly encountered during the response to the marine pollution, explaining how the effective command, leadership and management could maximize the eventual success of the operations.

Unfortunately, most of the oil spills are unforeseen and once occurred, they may significantly change the way of life for all who are affected. The immediate effects of the oil spills may be the localized damage to the environment and economic resources while the long term consequences are not as serious as they are usually feared. It is very important to avoid losing confidence at the initial stages of the spill incident developing rapidly. When responding to a spill, all effort shall be made to establish effective organizational structure clearly identifying persons in charge...

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