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Dual-Fuel Diesel Engines

   The rate of consumption of the energy resources available continues to increase in spite of the significant progress being made to enhance the efficiency of their usage. Contributions to this increase in consumption include the rise in world population, improvements in the average standard of living, and the increase in average life expectancy. It is expected that the combustion of fossil fuels will continue to be the prime source to rely on for energy for some time to come. This will be constrained, however, by the continued depletion of crude petroleum resources of quality, the need for ever-cleaner exhaust emissions, and the rapid progress being made in the development of renewable resources. On the other hand, it is becoming increasingly evident, especially more recently, that the availability of natural gas, as well as other gaseous fuels, is increasing. This has come about mainly as a result of the improvements in the long-range transportation of gas and the increased availability of unconventional sources, such as those of shale gas, biogases, and coal bed-derived gases. Moreover, the increased exploitation of unconventional resources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as tar sands, is bringing with it the potential production of large amounts of gaseous fuel mixtures, albeit of varied quality and having lower heating values than those of the conventional processed pipeline natural gas. On this basis, there are many opportunities to increasingly exploit such gaseous fuel resources while at the same time economizing on the consumption of other nonrenewable type liquid fossil fuel resources. Such approaches would need to develop further new means for the production of power while continuing the overall reduction of exhaust emissions, including those associated with their contribution to global warming.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 336 |

Modelling and Observation of Exhaust Gas Concentrations for Diesel Engine Control

   In spite of the economic crisis of transport sectors such as the aerospace or naval, the automotive sector is facing a really challenging time. The trends in this sector during the past years had been focused on minimizing the pollutants, namely NOs, CO, HC or PM. However, the efforts in the next years are moving towards the C02 reduction, and thus minimizing the fuel consumption without worsening the pollutants. In the case of gasoline engines, the emissions problem is relatively solved since years by the three-way catalyst but for diesel, the use of different after-treatment systems as well as new combustion systems and control improvements are necessary. At the same time, the introduction of new fuel types and the development of the electric or hybrid vehicles introduce indeed new possibilities to the engineers. The diesel engine requires a renewal of the number of information sources available in order to monitor and control all the variables that affect the correct performance of this complex system. A good example is the on-board diagnostics algorithms necessary to monitor the NOx emissions, required for the urea dosing of the selective catalyst reduction systems or useful for the development of direct NOs control. Within this framework, this book intends to give solutions to real problems on the topic of the online estimation of the exhaust engine variables in diesel engines. The reader will find a number of methods and algorithms that cover the main possibilities for inferring the exhaust variables on-board...

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 183 |

Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice

   The consumption of energy taking place in pumping systems accounts for approximately twenty per cent of the world's electrical energy demand. Moreover, the operational cost of pumping machinery tar outweighs their capital cost. Accordingly, engineers strive for optimum equipment performance for achieving economic operation, and a thorough understanding of the components and operating principles of these machines will provide an opportunity to dramatically reduce energy, as well as operational and maintenance costs. Reducing energy consumption will also complement the current thrust towards protecting our environment. This book is intended to be a basic reference on theoretical foundation and applications of various types of pumping machinery. In view of the great importance of pumps and compressors in almost every engineering system, this book presents the fundamental concepts underlying the flow processes taking place in these machines and the transformation of mechanical energy into fluid power. Special emphasis is given to basic theoretical formulation and design considerations of pumps and compressors in addition to improving problem-solving skills. This is achieved through the presentation of solved examples of applied nature using analytical means and/or basic engineering practices. The book consists of ten chapters covering two main themes: the first smoothly introduces the essential terminology, basic principles, design considerations, and operational-type problems in pumping machinery. This part is supported by a good number of worked examples plus problems at the end of each chapter for the benefit of senior undergraduate students and junior engineers. This is considered a key feature of this book because other books in this area rarely provide enough worked problems and exercises. The second theme focuses on advanced topic such as two-phase flow pumping systems targeting practicing field engineers and introductory research scientists.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 573 |

Diesel Engine - Combustion, Emissions and Condition Monitoring

   This book was prepared by many contributors, all of them being industry professionals. Saiful Bari, the editor, compiled all material into one publication. It contains ten chapters addressing various aspects of diesel engines. However, three major parts of the publication cover combustion and emissions, exhaust fas after treatment and EGR, and engine control and conditioning monitoring systems. The book was published by InTech in 2013.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 923 |

Audel Pumps and Hydraulics   This handbook was prepared with the intention to provide readers with good understanding of the fundamentals of pumps and their control devices as well as with the fundamentals of the hudraulics science. Today, due to the very large number of applications of pumping equipment, a thorough knowledge of these items is very important. The authors explain the practical features and applkied principles of hydraulics and pumps in detai, covering many different oiperations, installations and maintenance instructions. The materials contained in this book will be useful for engineers, students and designers, maintenance and installation technicians, mechanics and for self-education and advancement.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 569 |

Compressed Air Operations Manual

   The purpose of this book is to provide a basic understanding of the compressed air systems, equipment, and technologies that are available on the market today. You might have many years of experience with a specific compression system, but the catalogs and sales literature just aren't providing you with the information you need. Maybe you've just been assigned the compression system as part of your responsibilities and you have no experience whatsoever with this type of equipment. Oftentimes, the compressors are the bastard child of a company's capital equipment and no one in particular is responsible for them. If you head up the company's maintenance department, the compressors probably fall under your responsibilities. You may be a salesman who works with pneumatic-powered equipment and, from time to time, are asked to comment on your customer's compression systems. In any case, this book will give you the baseline information that will allow you to make well-informed decisions about specifying, expanding, or assessing a compression system. Like many technical people, I felt that I had a clear conceptual understanding of air compression, I mean, what's to know? You suck in some air, you smash it into a tank. Simple! I even built an air compressor from an old auto AC pump and a piece of pipe when I was in high school.юю

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 688 |

Valve Handbook

   This is the third edition of the Valve Handbook by Philip L. Skousen. It was revised in order to include all important details on the very latest industry technologies and now includes one new chapter dedicated to the green technology and an overview of the the important environmental global standards. The design, selection, performance, application and operation of the valves are discussed in this book. In this edition of the handbook such important matters as manual and check valves, valve selection criteria, control and pressure relief valves, common problems, green technology, manual actuators and operators, smart positioners and valves, sizing of valve and actuator, and issues related to the purchsing of valves, have been addressed.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 888 |

Pipeline and Pipeline Calculations Manual

   Preface; Major Standards and Codes; U.S. Customary vs. Metric Measurement Systems; Selection and Use of Pipeline Materials; Pipe Sizing, Flow Calculations and Friction Losses; Pipes Pressure Thickness Integrity Calculations; Straight and Curved Pipes, and Intersection Calculations; Piping Flexibility, Reactions, and Sustained Thermal Calculations; Piping Support Elements, Methods, and related Calculations; Specialty Components; Low-Frequency vs. High-Frequency Vibration Calculations; Occasional Loads Calculations; Slug Flow and Fluid Transients Calculations; Valves & Flow Control Calculations; Fabrication & Examination Elements Calculations; Appendix.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 487 |

The Coen & Hamworthy Combustion Handbook

   The last Coen & Hamivorthy Combustion Handbook was written by Arthur H. Light in 1920.' In the late 1980s, Coen authorized the publication of a new combustion handbook at the request of its customers, but day-to-day work never allowed time for the book. The origins of this book started during a business trip. In early 2000, one of the editors (Steve) was on a trip to visit a major Coen customer with a young Coen application engineer. During dinner, the engineer told Steve a story of a number of engineers debating the units of molecular weight for hours. It was at this moment that Steve decided a unique kind of book was needed that did not exist for combustion engineers. The book needed to be all inclusive and cover the very basics in building block form up to more complex combustion topics for everyone involved in combustion systems to use. This book is designed for all engineers and professionals involved in the field of industrial and utility combustion systems. It is roughly divided into two parts, consisting of a total of 17 chapters, sequentially covering relevant and important combustion engineering basics and then specific computations and applications. Each chapter is roughly organized from simple to more complex, thus allowing the reader to absorb as much as they may need before moving on to the next chapter. Practical examples are also included.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 682 |

The Guide to Slow Steaming on Ships

   Generally speaking, slow steaming is a process of delierately reducing the ship's speed with the purpose of cutting down fuel oil consumption as well as carbon emissions to the atmosphere. This Guide prepared by MarineInsight team is aimed to help marine engineers and all persons dealing with the engine part of the ship. Its chapters tell the reader what the slow steaming is and what its benefits are, provides some brief history, explain why marine engineers are concerned, show how to test the main engines for slow steaming, describes the process of optimization of the marine engines, and different types of slow steaming without the modification of the engine itself. In addition, precautions and checks for slow steaming are provided at the end of the book.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 632 |

The Basics of Pipes and Bends on Ships

   The publication by MarineInsight Team addressing basics of bends and pipes on board ships - it will be useful for crew members, marine students, and any other people involved in design, construction, everyday use or periodic maintenance and inspection of piping systems on board vessels. This publication prepared by professional and experienced marine engineer contains following chapters - Basics of pipes; Bends and elbows; Types of elbows, nipple, adapter, and tee; Miscellaneous fittings.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 949 |

Centrifugal Pumps

   The pumps, icluding centrifugal type pumps, are widely presented in ship hull systems. It means that every professional desling with the design of pumps has to have very good theoretical knowledge and fully understand how they work. But that is not enough, and they should be familiar with the practical application of pumps and engineering correlations for flow phenomena. This book is intended to be of use to pump designers as well as crew members dealing with the day-to-day operation and maintenance of pumps. The chapters of this publication cover such interesting and important topics as various pump types and their performance data, fluid dynamic principles, physical concepts and pump hydraulics, various performance characteristics, partload operation, cavitation and suction capability, design of the various hydraulic components, vibration and noise, hydraulic forces, pump operation, general characteristics of turbine operation, selection of materials exposed to high flow velocities, influence of the medium, pump selection and quality considerations, and pump testing.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1125 |

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

   In the list of issues addressed within this publication there are compressors, refrigeratnts, the refrigeration cycle, water towers and condensers, oil in refrigerant circuits, expansion valves, evaporators, cold store construction, controls and other air conditioning circuit components - their selection and balancing, materials and construction, site erection, and many more, liquid chillers, brines, ice, thermal storage, refrigeration in the food trades and for the dairy and other industries, food freezing, freeze-drying, refrigeration load estimation, air-conditioning load estimation, air movement, air conditioning methods, air drying and dehumidifiers, heat recovery, heat pumps, control systems, commissioning, operation, periodical maintenance and service, fault training, training, economy and efficiency in operation, catalogue selection.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1839 |

Maritime Engineering and Technology

   Here is a very good compilation of the articles related to the maritime engineering and maritime technology. There are nine main parts in this book covering such areas as ship control and propulsion, ship design, onboard systems, ship traffic, resk and reliability, ship structures, ship dynamics and hydrodynamics, renewable energy, wave and wind modeling. For more than twenty-five years, the Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering branch of the Portuguese Association of Engineers and the Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering of the Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, have been organizing national conferences on Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture. Such meetings had the objective of bringing together Portuguese professionals and giving them an opportunity to present and discuss the ongoing technical activities. They have been attended by up to 200 participants. The papers presented in these meetings have been collected in a series of books written in Portuguese. At the same time, as the conferences have become more mature, the international contacts have also increased and the industry became more international in such a way that the fact that the conference was in Portuguese started to hinder its further development with wider participation. Therefore, for the session that was planned for 2010, a decision was made to experiment with having also papers in English, mixed with the usual papers in Portuguese. The national meetings have normally taken place around the month of November but, given that IST was completing 100 years of existence in May 2011, another decision was made to postpone this Conference to 10-12 May 2011 so as to associate it also with the commemorations of the 100 years of IST...

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 2256 |

Boiler Operator's Handbook

   This book is aimed to be used by boiler operators, operating engineers or stationary engineers by title, having enough theoretical knowledge and practical experience with operating boilers but would wishing to know moге and be able to operate their boiler plants wisely. The book is simple enough to be understood by beginner operators. This publication can also be used by the superintendent or manager who wants to have a reference to understand what his boiler plant operators are talking about. It would be fair to warn a reader that this book that it assumes a certain amount of experience and knowledge already exists. The day I mailed the contract for this book to the publisher I sat across a table from a boiler operator who said, "Why hasn't somebody written a book for boiler operators that isn't written for engineers?" I've tried to do it with this book, no high powered math and minimal technical jargon. There are two basic types of operators, those that put in their eight hours on shift while doing as little as possible and those that are proud of their profession and do their best to keep their plant in top shape and running order. You must be one of the latter and you should take pride in that alone...

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 2091 |

Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers

   For over three decades, I was associated with boiler companies designing oil- and gas-fired custom package boilers and waste heat boilers that are in operation worldwide in chemical plants, refineries, cogeneration systems, and power plants. The boilers have been operating well and performing as predicted within the margin of measurement errors. As a specialist in thermal design of heat transfer equipment and out of interest, I would correlate field data from operating units with predicted performance to check the correction factors to be incorporated in heat transfer or gas pressure drop correlations that were used for designing the boilers. I would review operating data such as boiler exit gas temperature, steam generation, fuel input, gas pressure drop, evaporator, superheater performance, their tube wall temperatures, and other process-related parameters and compare the results with predicted data. Over the years this has helped me to fine-tune the calculation procedure and modify the correction factors used in the performance evaluation of various heat transfer surfaces. Through the publication of hundreds of articles during this period, I have also been sharing thermal design procedures for boilers and HRSGs with the engineering community. I have written a few books, the recent being Industrial Boilers and HRSGs, where the emphasis was on sizing and performance evaluation of steam generator and waste heat boiler components. For the past decade, since the publication of the cited book, I have been playing the role of a boiler consultant. The transformation from a boiler designer to a boiler consultant has been gratifying as I can interact with plant engineers worldwide and learn from them about various boiler performance issues and suggest modifications to solve boiler-related problems or improve their performance (the word boiler refers to a steam generator as well as a waste heat recovery unit). Many plant engineers or even consultants have no clue as to how a boiler should be evaluated before it is bought or what information should be obtained from boiler suppliers regarding its thermal performance aspects. They rely entirely on the sales pitch from boiler suppliers and buy it without giving any critical thought to its design from a thermal performance viewpoint. Purchasing a boiler is thought of as purchasing a commodity. When purchasing a steam generator or HRSG, plant engineers have to evaluate several factors keeping in mind that the life of a boiler is about 30 to 40 years and that the plant will have to face the consequence of any wrong decision for a long time...

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 919 |

Fire Safety at Sea

   Introduction; Combustion and fires; Fire extinguishing and extinguishing media; Fire extinguishing equipment; Machinery spaces; Fire and explosions from machinery; Bunkers and bunkering; Dry cargo spaces; Structural fire protection; Automatic sprinkler systems and fire detection; Tankers; Ships under repair; Shipboard organisation, fire drills and inspections; Fire casualties and lessons learned.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1214 |

Heat Pipe Design and Technology

   The heat pipe is probably one of the most remarkable achievements in the field of thermal physics and in heat transfer engineering during the course of this century because of its unique ability to transfer heat over large distances with minimal losses. Heat pipes are used mainly to protect the environment and to save energy and fuel. They have emerged as an effective thermal solution, particularly in high heat flux applications and in situations where there is a combination of nonuniform heat loading and limited airflow over the heat generating components, and weight or space constraints. This book will briefly introduce heat pipe technology and then highlight its basic applications for passive thermal control. Once a heat and mass transfer theory relevant to heat pipe performance have been reviewed, mathematical models can be developed for calculating heat transfer limitations in high temperature heat pipes, and heat transfer limitations and temperature gradient of low temperature heat pipes. Calculated results are compared with the available experimental data from various sources to increase confidence in the present math models. For the convenience of the users of the present theory, a few computer codes and their applications are mentioned and they are available from Galaxy Advanced Engineering. Inc. These codes are designed to handle interactive input from users of the codes as well as two computer programs for high- and low-temperature heat pipes respectively are reported. These programs enable the performance of heat pipes with wrapped-screen, rectangular-groove, or screen-covered rectangular-groove wick to be predicted. These codes are especially helpful in the design of steady-state heat pipe and are executable on Window/PC computing platforms.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 710 |

Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis

   The text of this book by Sam Kannappan contains many illustrations, tables, examples, and code equations. Worked out example problems are included in this publication in order to assist the reader in understanding the principles discussed in each of the chapters. Exercises and references are given at the end of each chapter. Piping analysis topics, such as support stiffness, overlapping, decoupling of branch lines, wind loads, and other advanced topics, are covered in another book by Sam Kannappan, entitled Advanced Pipe Stress Analysis. In this book author concentrated on such important issues as pipe stress analysis itself, design of pressure components, pipe span calculation, ANSI & ANSI codes, expansion loops and joints, flanged joints, piping connected to nonrotating/rotating equipment, nuclear components code, and some special topics.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 818 |

Modern Marine Engineers Handbook and Review Guide

   This book was exclusively prepared to help the Marine Engineers while reviewing the different subjects in preparation for the government licensure examination conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission. It is a compilation of solutions to the problems encountered during the recent examination. There are also exercise questions including an outline to examinees, to serve as an instant refresher on the most fundamental concept and principles in accordance with the scope of the examination usually given by the Board of Examiners at the PRC. It is also a complete practical guide to all apprentice cadet, ship personnel and engineers on board, on the latest technology to bring you the most up-to-date coverage possible of high standard on the job aboardship.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 3691 |

The Marine Steam Engine

   The full name of this classical and rare publication by Richard Sennett and Henry J. Oram is The Marine Steam Engine - A Treatise for Engineering Students, Young Engineers, and Officers of the Royal Navy and Merchantile Marine. Just imagine, it was published in London in 1898! However, most of the material presented inside, is still actual and very well explained. In 2007, the book was digitized by the Internet Archive sponsored by Microsoft Corporation.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1710 |

Pump Characteristics and Applications

   In fact, every a pump is a machine that is used for moving liquid through a piping system and raising its pressure. Pumps can be also defined as machines using several energy transformations in order to increase the pressure of the fluid. The electricity is commonly used for powering an electric motor; however, there are some alternative forms of energy used to power the driver like fuel oil powering a diesel engine, high-pressure steam driving a steam turbine, high-pressure hydraulic fluid to power a hydraulic motor, and compressed air to drive an air motor. The present publication jas been dedicated to the pumps and covers following major aspects of pumping technology - introduction; hydraulics, selection, and curves; special hydraulic considerations; types and applications of centrifugal pumps; sealing systems; sealless pumps; life-cycle costs and energy conservation; special pump-related topics; installation, maintenance and operation; major pump suppliers in the US; conversion formulae.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 2006 |

Pipe Flow - A Practical and Comprehensive Guide

   This book provides practical and comprehensive information on the subject of pressure drop and other phenomena in fluid flow in pipes. The importance of piping systems in distribution systems, in industrial operations-and in modern power plants justifies a book devoted exclusively to this subject. The emphasis is on flow in piping components and piping systems where greatest benefit will derive from accurate prediction of pressure loss. A great deal of experimental and theoretical research on fluid flow in pipes and their components has been reported over the years. However, the basic methodology in fluid flow textbooks is usually fragmented, scattered throughout several chapters and paragraphs; and useful, practical information is difficult to sort out. Moreover, textbooks present very little loss coefficient data, and those that are given are desperately out of date. Elsewhere, experimental data and published formulas for loss coefficients have provided results that are in considerable disagreement. Into the bargain, researchers have not accounted for all possible flow configurations and their results are not always presented in a readily useful form. This book addresses and fixes these deficiencies.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 2136 |

Wilhelmsen Fuel and Lube Oil Test Methods

   This document released by Wilhelmsen describes the fuel oil and lube oil test methods. The Total Base Number is determined by measuring the pressure build-up in the cell when a pre-determined quantity of oil sample is added to a special reagent. Then, we determine the amount of sample needed by the cell measurement processor; this amount is based on the expected TBN. When using this instrument for the very first time it is necessary to calibrate it for each of the oil grades to be measured. The cell is able to hold calibration data for up to seven different oil grades. The calibration process requires a sample of new oil for each of the grades to be measured. We recommend you use the oil grade name as the "Name" during the cell setup process. The cell should be re-calibrated approximately every six months. The calibration can be checked by using new oil in the TBN test procedure, in place of used oil. The'test'TBN should be close to the new oil TBN.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1076 |

Engine Bearing Failure Analysis Guide
   A guide of analysis and correction of premature engine bearing failures will be of great use for marine engineers, crew members dealing with the day-to-day operation and maintenance of the engines and people involved in the repair activities. It contains all recommended bearing installation tolerances and will serve as a good handbook with necessary information. All major causes for premature bearing failure have also been addressed in this short publication.

Category: MARINE ENGINEERING | Views: 1887 |

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