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Welding - Skills, Processes and Practices for Entry-Level Welders

   We are introducing the set comprising of three volumes and decsribing all issues related to the welding theory and practice. It was specifically developed in otder to support the AWS SENSE 2.0 guidelines for training. All three books combine theory-based text part accompanied by laboratory manuals and supporting materials. The organization of the books follows the modular structure of the guidelines from AWS - it will guide the readers through the whole process of improving their welding skills. The first book is the core volume - it introduces readers to the welding concepts - it covers five major aspects - occupational orientation, HSE matters, interpretation of drawings and symbols, thermal cutting, and weld inspection testing and applicable codes. The second book covers two welding processes - GMAW (gas metal arc welding) and FCAW (flux cored arc welding). The last book of the set addresses SMAW (shielded metal arc welding) and GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) processes.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 805 | | Comments (0)

Concrete in the Marine Environment

   This book should be treated as the amazing reference source for all people willing to know a bit more about the concrete in structures working in the marine environment as it provides necessary information to the marine structures and marine environment, chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete, some historical information of concrete used in the sea water environment, causes of the concrete deterioration in the seawater, proper selection of materials and proportions for durable concrete mixtures, repair works on various marine structures, concreting practice, and future prospects of concrete in construction of marine structures. The author uses a very basic terminology and adds some examples and illustrations for better understanding.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 522 | | Comments (0)

Composite Materials in Maritime Structures

   This set comprises of two volumes and belongs to the Cambridge Ocean Technology Series. The publication is intented to provide readers with the comprehensive guidance on the marine use of various composite materials. The first of the books is named Fundamental Aspects and covers the production technology and materials science, provides structural analysis and FEM, describes the failure mechanisms, addresses the important environmental aspects, etc. The second book, Practical Considerations, will examine fow the theory is used in the design and construction of the structures like submersibles, boats, offshore installations etc.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 863 | | Comments (0)

A Practical Course in Wooden Boat and Ship Building

   One fo the most popular classic books on the shipbuilding demonstrating the actual design methods and construction techniques. It was originally developed with the purpose of training of the woordworkers and carpenters in the basic aspects of wooden ship construction. The author tried to establish a course useful for the shipbuilders and boatbuilders; he did not try to prepare a complete treatise on the subject so please note that there can be some omissions. However, needless to say that the book will be of great interest for everyone willing to improve their knowledge of ship construction principles, as well as people interested in building ship models.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 745 | | Comments (0)

Ships Fastenings - From Sewn Boat to Steamship

   This book by Michael McCarthy provides readers with the useful and interesting information on various types of fastening and their development. It comes without saying that from the very earliest days of seafaring through the whole XX century the boats and ships could have never plied the seas if there were no durable and effective ship fastenings available. In this publication, this central element of ship construction has received its first detailed study as the author offers a thorough description of a range from sewn-plank boats of the ancient world and Micronesia to steamships. The book is intended to prove of very high value to shipbuilders, naval historians, and archaeologists. It will be very interesting for the enthusiast and amateur boat builders.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 648 | | Comments (0)

Shipbuilding for Beginners

   This training booklet was issued for use by workmen engaged in construction of the ships which were contracted for by the United States Shipping Board, with the confident expectation that it would be of value to them. Though published of almost one century ago, it is now classic and still actual source of information as the book explains the material contained in very clear and easily understandable language, and supplements the text with helpful diagrams.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1638 | | Comments (0)

Assessing Fire Safety in Maritime Composite Superstructures - A Risk-Based Approach

   This report is the result of a project which was initiated by a wide-ranging literature study. Eventually the study was focused on scientific articles, recognized handbooks and reports from ongoing risk-based ship design processes and FRP composite tests. Thereafter a broad background was produced for the report, covering maritime regulations, tire safety, risk management and the FRP composite. Taking in previous and current research as well as advice from supervisors, an approach was developed to cover the significant differences in fire safety function, structure and property between steel and FRP composite designs. It also had to fit current maritime regulations and for this reason MSC/Circ. 1002 (IMO, 2001) was thoroughly studied. The qualitative analysis model was described, exemplified and adjusted to what is required by the comparative analysis. Its correlation with the general approach of a risk analysis lead to farther ideas of how the analysis of novel designs should be arranged. Great novelty was naturally connected with the need for more sophisticated analysis models, due to the greater uncertainty. A model was developed based on the effects on fire safety when steel in general is replaced by FRP composite with a certain amount of insulation. It suggests how different degrees of novelty should be analyzed through risk management processes on different levels. The level of the risk management process to a large degree depends on the sophistication of the risk analysis. After classifying risk analyses in different levels these were connected with suggestions of possible scopes of FRP composite structures to analyze on each level. All levels of risk analysis were also managed to fit the required approach outlined in MSC/Circ. 1002 (IMO, 2001). Finally the analysis process, which was developed to take in the novelty in FRP composites and comparing it with prescriptive designs, was exemplified in a fictitious application case...

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 667 | | Comments (0)

Fire Risk and its Management in Cruise Vessel Construction Projects

   Introduction; Review of literature; Materials used; Methods of research; Findings on fire risk and its assessment; Findings on responses to possible fire risk at the shipyards; Fire risk, its size and available responses in case of construction of cruise vessels; Discussion; The very basic chemistry and physics; Fire risk management of already completed cruise ships... These are the most important topics of teh Doctorial dissertation presented by Pekka Raisanen at Aalto University last year.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 813 | | Comments (0)

Welding Processes

   The book consists of four sections. The first one is Laser welding - it provides an overview of the hybrid laser arc welding, welding of dissimilar metals, photonics devices, stainnless steel etc. The second section is Numerical modeling of welding processes. The third section, Sensing of welding processes, focuses mostly on stud arc welding. Finally, the section General topics on welding, as the name implies, provides general information.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1227 | | Comments (0)

Ship Production

   This classical book on ship building is revised, 2nd edition. Many significant changes were made in the present edition from the text of the original version. The first chapter contains the history of shipbuilding as well as statistics relating to production and market share, were updated to have some more current information. The second chapter was expanded in order to more directly incorporate into the text the whole material related to shipbuilding economic theory. In fourth chapter there new material was added relating to fabrication processes. Antiquated information has been removed from Chapter V addressing shipyard layout and useful new material was inserted that more accurately reflects the conditions of current ship production facilities...

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 2333 | | Comments (0)

Safe Operation and Maintenance of Dry Dock Facilities

   Floating dry docks, often referred to as "floaters," are structures with sufficient size, strength, displacement, and stability to lift a vessel from the water using buoyancy. The docks can be operated with list and trim to reduce block loading and reduce or eliminate vessel stability problems when docking or undocking. Some shipyards are equipped to transfer vessels to shore from a floating dry dock, which enables concurrent work on multiple vessels. Floating dry docks are comprised of a pontoon and wing walls. The pontoon is the main structural component that must be designed to distribute the concentrated blocking loads from the vessel to the dock and ultimately to the uniform buoyant force on the hull. The pontoon provides the transverse strength for the dock as well as contributing to the longitudinal strength. Additionally, the pontoon must have sufficient volume to provide the displacement to lift the vessel and dock out of the water using buoyancy...

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1604 | | Comments (0)

Dockmaster Training Manual

   The Dockmaster training manual developed by Heger Dry Dock, Inc. is aimed to provide the comprehensive training material covering following important topics - dry dock types and docking plan, block loading and ship stability issues, vessel characteristics important to dry docking, predicting ship condition at undocking, drydocking procedures and block construction, ship handling, developing a proper pumping plan, dry dock ratings and certifications, dry dock transfer systems; Solved problems.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 2357 | | Comments (0)

Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials

   I have written this book to cover the objectives of the Technician Education Council standard units Workshop processes and materials, for students of mechanical/production engineering, industrial measurement and control, and polymer technology, and Materials and workshop processes for students of electronic, telecommunication, and electrical engineering. These two units contain a great deal of common material, and by covering them both 1 hope that the book will be useful to a larger number of students and teaching staff. From my own experience I have found the content of these units too great to be covered in the design length of 60 hours while still leaving time for adequate practical involvement by the student, which can best be carried out under the guidance of the lecturer. In writing this book, my aim has been to set out in detail the theoretical aspects of each topic, with appropriate line illustrations, in the hope that, by using the book as a course text and for assignments, more time can be spent by the student in practical work where machines and equipment can be demonstrated, handled, and used. Questions at the end of each chapter are directly related to the chapter content as a means of reinforcing the learning process. An extensive coverage of health and safety has been included, as I feel very strongly that anyone involved in an industrial environment should develop a responsible awareness of the hazards which could affect not only his own health and safety but also that of his fellow workers. Although specifically written for the TEC standard units, the content is also suitable for the syllabus requirements of the GCE ordinary-level examinations in Engineering workshop theory and practice and Engineering workshop practice, as well as a considerable amount of first-year work in the higher national diploma in mechanical engineering.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 2071 | | Comments (0)

Towards a Unified Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Marine Structures

   Traditional strength assessment procedure implemented in marine structural design rules is highly experience-based due to the complexity of the structure and its operational environment. With the fast development of computer technology, software and hardware, the possibility to accurately assess the marine structural strength based on the strict principles of mechanics increases. The criteria which allow the direct calculations of loading and strength are often termed as first-principle-based design criteria. However, it is widely recognized that even the latest classification rules for marine structures are still far from the "real" first-principle-based criteria. Important evidence for this statement is that the strength is assessed at different global (hull girder) and local (stiffened panel and welded joints) levels and in different failure modes (yielding, buckling and fatigue). The relationship among them is not taken into consideration and the relative success of this strength assessment procedure is largely based on past experiences. Furthermore, in most of the fatigue strength assessment methods which are S-N curve based, the effects of initial defects and load sequence have been ignored and the damage state has not been specified. These, together with some other factors, lead to large scatter of the predicted fatigue lives. Significant improvements with regard to the fatigue strength assessment methodology for marine structures are required. The effect of fatigue damage on ultimate strength is not considered too. Thus, for existing marine structures operated for certain period, the strength analyzed may not represent the actual strength a marine structure possessed. Risk analysis based on the current strength analysis procedure is then rather uncertain. Inspection and maintenance decisions based on the assessment may not reflect the actual "optimum"...

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1021 | | Comments (0)

Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding

   Since the beginning of the 1980s, the industrial applications of high power lasers have been increasing and today lasers are a well established high technology industrial tool. Welding is one of the main applications of high power lasers. The potential of high brightness energy sources such as lasers and electron beams to perform high-quality narrow welds at high production rates is outstanding and many welding applications of these two processes have been developed through the years. Starting from spot welding and fine pulsed welding, which mainly use Nd-YAG lasers, seam welding using continuous-wave СO2 lasers also became an industrial process in the 1980s. The major problem|in using laser (and electron beam) welding was often the stringent joint tolerances these two processes demanded. Laser beams heat only the seam and a small area around it, creating a narrow weld. If a wide gap is used, a weld with an underfill or an undercut results or, in some cases, part of the beam is transmitted through the gap rather than welding the metal. For many years it was considered impossible to use these techniques in heavy industry with its use of relatively coarse components. However. as the output of high-power lasers increased to a level high enough to produce welds 5 mm wide, the process became viable for heavy industrial applications. It was at this point that a research paper from the late 1970s came into the mind of some scientists and engineers involved in laser welding. The paper was one of two dealing with combining an arc process with a laser beam: one paper on arc-augmented laser cutting and one on arc-augmented laser welding. Both papers were part of the steady stream of innovative papers from the team around Professor William M. Steen. at that time working at Imperial College in London. He applied his 2-kW British Oxygen Company (BOC) lasers in many different experiments, including those reviewed in these two studies. At that time, others in the laser welding community were busy concentrating on making narrow cut and keyhole welds, and the idea of combining this fine and precise heat source with an old fashioned arc source was not considered mainstream research at that time. However, when bridging the gap in heavy section welding or when reducing the hardness in steel by reducing the cooling rate became topical in laser welding, this old research paper came into our minds, and a number of my colleagues started to study this process more carefully. By this time we had larger and more reliable laser sources than the two 2-kW laboratory lasers at Imperial College. As a result, promising results came out of the first research into laser hybrid welding. Large heavy-industry projects with potential laser welding applications, such as the shipbuilding projects in Europe and Japan, stimulated this development, and soon many research groups around the world took up the challenge of bringing the two heat sources together. The laser hybrid process that emerged from this research is not a simple process and the equipment is not cheap. However, laser hybrid welding has now found its way into a range of industrial applications. In this book, a summary is presented of recent research on the hybrid laser-arc welding process and its applications. This provides a snapshot of this advanced technology at a particular point in time but developments will continue. New types of laser, the disc laser and the high-power fibre laser, will certainly improve this technology in the future. The results of research using these new laser sources are included in this book, but much more will certainly follow in the near future as a result of the many research teams throughout the world that are active in developing this important process.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1185 | | Comments (0)

New Construction in South Asia

   This guide provides an overview of the shipyards and ship designers in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. Over such a large geographical area a broad range of factors have shaped the development of shipbuilding in the region. Experience, ambition, history, culture, economic and demand factors have shaped, and will continue to shape, the diverse and growing shipbuilding capabilities in South Asia. While recently the 'big three' countries of China, Japan and Korea have experienced a decline in the number of ships ordered, many of the South Asian countries covered by this guide have seen a growth in terms of numbers of ships, ship types and ship sizes during this same period. With increased quality, competitive pricing and burgeoning capability, both local and international owners are increasingly seeing the area as an attractive newbuilding option for future projects. Capability that was previously directed exclusively at local demand in countries such as Indonesia and Vietnam is now at a competitive level in terms of the quality, facilities and construction times of the world's leading yards. With South Asian yards looking to compete on a global scale, whether building VLCCs or smaller ships, technically challenging naval vessels, offshore support vessels, specialised tugs or aluminium supply craft, Lloyd's Register is well placed to support this development. Our recently released report, Global Marine Trends 2030, emphasised the growing importance of Asian economic growth and its significance in shipbuilding and shipping as a whole. If economic growth continues at anticipated levels, the future is extremely bright for the South Asia area in terms of shipbuilding demand, growing maritime trade, demand for energy infrastructure and the growth of naval power and ambition. We have developed this guide for the industry and for investors as part of our efforts to foster co-operation and mutual support between local and international owners, suppliers, designers and South Asian shipyards. The 'useful information' section, which details the major shipyards and design institutes, was up-to-date at the time of publication and we hope you find it informative and easy to use.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1471 | | Comments (0)

Seawater Corrosion Handbook

   Here is a practical book that will help anyone encountering the insidious corrosion problems that can be caused by seawater. The book constitutes a review containing carefully excerpted and collated data from diverse and difficult-to-locate sources. The technological information to be found here is based on studies by research teams from U.S. Naval Research Laboratories and other research teams under the auspices of various government agencies. The first chapter is really an overview and deals with the general aspects concerning the corrosion of metals in marine environments: MCIC Report 78-37 entitled Corrosion of Metals in Marine Environments by W.K. Boyd and F.W. Fink, Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Columbus, Ohio, March 1978. The second chapter deals with the corrosion at various depths and is from Technical Report R834: Corrosion of Metals and Alloys in the Deep Ocean by F.M. Reinhart, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme CA, Feb. 1976. The third chapter treats the effects of microorganisms. Material for this chapter was elaborated from three reports. The first original report is a preprint of a scientific paper entitled Biofouling and Effects of Organic Compounds and Microorganisms on Corrosion Processes by S.M. Gerchakov and B. Sallman, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Sept. 1977. The second report is entitled Corrosion at 4500 Foot Depth in Tongue-of-the-Ocean by E. Fischer and S. Finger, U.S. Naval Applied Science Laboratory, Brooklyn, NY, March 1966. The third original report is entitled Influence of Marine Organisms on the Life of Structural Steels in Seawaterby C.R. Southwell et al.. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, March 1974. The fourth chapter is an annotated bibliography containing meaningful abstracts referring to the corrosion of metals- It stems from a paper by L.A. Beaubien found in NRL Report No. 7447 entitled Behavior of Materials in a Subsurface Ocean Environment by L.A. Beaubien et al., Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C, July 1972. This chapter has its own author and materials index. The fifth chapter treats the possible deterioration of nonmetalltc materials when immersed or in contact with seawater and is also based on NRL Report No. 7447 cited for the fourth chapter. Advanced composition and production methods developed by Noyes Data are employed to bring these durably bound books to you in a minimum of time. Special techniques are used to close the gap between "manuscript" and "completed book." Technological progress is so rapid that time-honored, conventional typesetting, binding and shipping methods are no longer suitable. We have bypassed the delays in the conventional book publishing cycle and provide the user with an effective and convenient means of reviewing up-to-date information in depth.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 2551 | | Comments (0)

Advanced Strength of Materials

   Torsion - Non-circular prisms, Saint-Venant theory, Kelvin's fluid-flow analogy, Jacobsen's electrical analogy, Prandtl's membrane analogy, Hollow sections, Warping of the cross sections, Round shafts of variable diameter; Rotating Disks - Flat disks, Disks of variable thickness and Disks of uniform stress; Membrane Stresses in Shells - General theory, Applications, Shells of uniform strength, Non-symmetrical loading; Bending of Flat Plates - Simple solutions, Circular plates, Catalogue of results, Large deflections; Beams on Elastic Foundation - The infinite, semi-infinite and finite beams, Applications; Two-Dimensional Theory of Elasticity - The Airy stress function, Applications to polynomials in rectangular coordinates, Polar coordinates, Kirch, Boussinesq, and Michell, Plasticity; The Energy Method - The three energy theoremes and their proofs, Examples on least work, Bending of thin-walled curved tubes, Flat plates in bending; Buckling - Rayleigh's method, Coil springs, Beams on elastic foundation, Proof of Rayleigh's theorem, Vianello's/Stodola's method, Rings, boiler tubes, and arches, Twist-bend buckling of beams and twist buckling of columns, Buckling of shafts by torsion, Twin flat plates; Miscellaneous Topics - Mohr's circle for three dimensions, Torsion of pretwisted thin-walled sections, The theorems of Spielvogel and Biezeno - Answers to Problems.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 2225 | | Comments (0)

Fishing boats of the world

   This is one of the most famous and classic books on the construction of fishing boats edited by Jan-Olof Traung so many years ago. It was republished in higher quality and digitized. Still very popular and actual, this book is made of two parts. It covers virtually all topics that may be useful and interesting for people dealing with design and construction of the fishing boats as well as for the people actually using the boats for fishing every day. It equally covers hull construction and strength issues, and addresses ship machinery design, installation and operation. Sea behaviour has also been covered in this publication as it is very important aspect of the day-to-day operation of the fishing boat. This is really some kind of full encyclopedia of boats which will is truly a must have book for boat builders and seamen.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1646 | | Comments (0)

Structural Steelwork Analysis and Design

   Strength of materials - bending stress in beams, Shear stress in beams, Torsional shear stress, Strain energy in axial load, bending, torsion, and shear; Theory of structures - Polygon of forces, Equations of equilibrium, Internal forces, Bending moment and shear force, Influence lines, Matrix methos of structural analysis, Structural dynamics, Analysis of plates, Methods of plastic analysis; Analysis of structures. Worked examples - 1. Roof truss, 2. Continuous beam, 3. Frame structure, 4. Analysis of a hingeless arch, 5. Yield-line analysis of a rectangular plate, 6. Seismic analysis of a tall cantilever structure, 7. Plastic analysis of a pitched portal frame; Design of structures - Principal issues, Material grade selection and section type selection, Manufacturing process, Check list of actions and design considerations, ultimate limit state design; Design of struts - Axial capacity of a column or a strut, Types of failure, Design basis, Step-by-step design procedure, Worked examples; Design of ties - Principal issues, Design basis, Combined axial tension and bending moment, Step-by-step design of members in tension, Examples; Design of beams - Principal issues, Design basis, Step-by-step design of beams, Examples, Beams subject to torsion; Design of composite beams and columns - Composite beams, Composite columns; Connections in steelwork - Bolted connections, Welds and welding, Notched beams, Beam-to-beam connection, Column bases, Examples; Corrosion problems; Material properties.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1859 | | Comments (0)

Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies

   It is well known from the marine history that from the very beginning of the navigation, the marine fouling, i.e. growth of various aquatic organisms on the ships underwater parts was always considered a very serious problem. This book is aimed to address some key aspects of the technologies of development and application of the anti-fouling coatings intended to protect the ships hull. The following has been covered in this publication: Marine fouling organisms, their impact on the hull, chemically active marine antifouling technologies, development of antifouling coatings and their testing, various surface approaches to the control of marine bio-fouling.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1409 | | Comments (0)

Nondestructive Evaluation - Theory, Techniques, and Application

   This comprehensive guidance describes major non-destructive evaluation issues that are associated with real-world applications, and details most of conventional as well as forthcomint technologies. It will instruct the reader on common techniques, equipment applications, current practices and limitations and potentials of the various NDE methods. Each of the chapters in this handbook details one NDE method, proving an overview, physical basis, the inspection techniques, equipment and supporting instrumentation, proper procedures for inspection, examples of application and many things more. It will be useful for professionals in non-destructive evaluation and testing as well as to the people studying this subject inorder to get the higher level in NDE inspection.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1464 | | Comments (0)

Safe Use of Abrasive Wheels

   How to use this book - advice for trainers; Introduction; Storage and maintenance; Keeping the wheel in good condition - choosing the right wheel, markings and manufacturer's codes; Using abrasive wheels - preparing and checking the wheels, mounting the wheel: static and portable machines, basic safety and safety equipment, safety when using the wheel, safety Do's and Dont's for portable machines; Summary; Assessment questions; Appendices - legislation/guidance, further resources, case studies; Assessment answers.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1157 | | Comments (0)

Metal Fatigue
   Introduction; Historical background; Constant amplitude fatigue; Variable amplitude and multiaxial fatigue; Fatigue design; The uncracked situation; The cracked situation; Fatigue crack paths; Why metal fatigue matters; Fracture mechanics; Random load theory and RMS; Non destructive testing.
Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1817 | | Comments (0)

Strength and Toughness of Materials
   Materials are very important elements supporting various technological fields. However, students do not necessarily want to study in this field. It may be that they can not conceptualize a concrete image of materials. Even in the limited field of engineering, development of each technology depends mainly on materials. Materials often become a key problem also in design and R&D. The most basic theme in those efforts seems to exist in materials. Recently used materials, including ceramics and polymers, reach a very wide range and a shift from metal age is underway. However, most advanced materials have inherent brittleness; therefore their practical use is limited in many cases. In this respect, metal is superior in toughness and is used largely in various fields. What is toughness? In short, it represents a resistance to fracture; moreover, high strength is implicitly expected. Material having high strength and fracture resistance is demanded in new applications: metal is used widely for such reasons. Notwithstanding, we must find a new way to develop high temperature properties, which have reached a point of saturation in metallic materials. Ceramics and intermetallic compounds are very attractive in this respect. However, it will be difficult to utilize them immediately as structural materials for their brittleness. Moreover, strength and toughness show a generally contradictory tendency. It is a mission of material engineers to solve such a contradiction and to realize practical utilization.

Category: SHIPBUILDING & REPAIR | Views: 1687 | | Comments (0)

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