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Tsunamis and Hurricanes - A Mathematical Approach

   Both hurricanes and tsunamis are treated as the serious natural catastrophes which could potentially cause a great harm to the humans. That is why it is really important to try and find effective ways of prediction and description of the subject phenomena, and these methods would be of great interest not only to the professional meteorologist but actually to all people. The present volume is dedicated to the new research on the math descriptions of the hurricanes and tsunamis. Ferdinand Cap, the author, has presented the material in a very easy-to-follow manner which has made this work very useful for all researchers who are working in the field of mathematical modeling as well as hydrodynamics. The theoretical part of the book is rich with detailed formulas, calculations and very informative data tables. The author has tried to cover the tools and various computer tools that have never been applied earlier. In fact, the thorough knowledge of those code is not a pre-requisite for the use of this volume; however, it would definitely be help to have some basic understanding of the associated calculations and the readers might get some knowledge of the subject program. Four chapters of the book provide the introduction to the wave physics, and cover the basic flow equations, water waves, and hurricanes.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 740 | | Comments (0)

Water Wave Scattering

   The water-waves theory is considered a fascinating and interesting topic, including a really broad range of various natural phenomena, and covering the most important general aspects of the motion of waves, including the waves' behavior prediction in the presence of various obstacles. However, even the simple problems sometimes appear to be quite difficult to be tacked mathematically unless you make some simplified assumption. The present interesting title has been mainly dedicated to the advanced mathematical work directly relating to the scattering of the water waves. The main emphasis as been laid by the author on the computational and mathematical techniques that are commonly necessary in order to perform the mathematical study of these problems. The main content of this title is made up of nine chapters with the first chapter being pure introductory while the second one addresses the wave scattering that involves the rigid plates, The following two parts cover the scattering by a rectangular trench utilizing the Galerkin technique, and scattering by a dock utilizing the Carleman equation. The fifth chapter touches several problems including the upper surface discontinuities. Remaining chapters of the work deal with the energy identities, scattering of the two-layer fluids and various wave scattering problems...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 750 | | Comments (0)

Tackling Marine Debris in the 21st Century

   Nowadays, marine debris that are discharges from the vessels and other source, including the trash as well as the lost fishing gear, is seriously contributing to the ongoing spoiling of the beaches and fouling of the seafloor and surface waters; in addition to that, it causes significant harm to the marine mammals and other negative effects. Regretfully, the existing domestic laws and international conventions that are intended to provide the due control of the discharge of marine debris, have not been too successful, and one of the reasons for that was that the laws provided little incentive to the changes in the behavior. The authors of the present publication have made an attempt to properly identify the established ways of reduction of the wastes, decrease in the disposal of waste at marine ports, and also to strengthen the whole regulatory framework towards a zero-discharge in the environment of the sea. The progress in this field will mainly depend on a commitment to the sustained funding and also on the appropriate support. The relevant authorities should target research in order to get to the sound understanding of the sources, associated fates and potential impacts of marine debris by means of the planning and prioritization of the related activities, and also provide the required support to the establishment of the rigorous protocols allowing to monitor at a broad variety of scales.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 76 | | Comments (0)

The Global Water System in the Antropocene

   We know that humans have influenced the environment in many ways in the past, but since the industrial revolution and even more during the "great acceleration in the human enterprise" following World War IT, humans have assumed the role of a dominating force in changing the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, hydro- and cryosphere and hence affecting crucial functioning of the whole Earth system... This publication prepared by a team of experts in marine science was released to provide the industry and all interested people with a platform allowing for the presentation of both regional and global perspectives of the experiences on responses to global changes to address the key issues, for example the increasing need for water, supply variability, environmental flows and other related aspects. The content of the book will help readers to build the required links between policy/science and practice in the field of management and governance of the water resources. The book also addresses the latest technological and institutional innovations and also identifies the keys in which the research activities could assist the practice and policy related to the sustainable freshwater management. The proper management of the fresh water is considered one of the most important challenges to reach the sustainability within the global environment.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 447 | | Comments (0)

Analysis of Seawater - A Guide for the Analytical and Environmental Chemist

   The present practice-oriented publication was prepared with the specific intention to address virtually all aspects of the sea-water analysis by means of the classical plus the most advanced and recently introduced techniques. Until now, such analysis was limited to some number of major constituents. It will be of great interest to anyone dealing with the environment protection and to other workers such as river. Authorities, oceanographers, practicing analysts, scientists and, of course, environmentalists. T. Crompton, the author of the volume, collected all methods published in the last several decades years. The main content of the work has been supplemented with almost fifty tables and same number of figures. The methods of the seawater analysis have been presented in a very logical manner making them easy to understand and perform. The book starts with a chapter addressing the sampling and storage matters, including the devices used. The second chapter deals with determination of the anions, while the third one covers the anions in both coastal and estuary waters. Remaining chapters of the publication address the dissolved gases, cations in the sea water, cations in the coastal, bay and estuary waters, radioactive elements and organic/organometallic compounds, sample preparation, and elemental analysis.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 535 | | Comments (0)

Regional Co-operation and Protection of the Marine Environment Under International Law

   In her book, Nilufer Oral has provided an excellent overview and examination of the mechanism of regional collaboration with the ultimate goal to protect and duly preserve the Black Sea's marine environment, within the frames of the relevant international legislation; in addition to that, the author performed the identification of all key components for the regional regime established on a basis of the very best legal practices available. This volume will provide readers with a good and comprehensive overview of the modern challenges relating to the Black Sea, with the particular emphasis made on the biological diversity and fisheries, and sources of marine pollution from land and from vessels. Looking at the historical background of the regional collaboration in the above stated geographic area, we will see the comparison to the process of development of same within the international law. The publication starts with the valuable information related to the historical development of that collaboration, followed by the chapters addressing the state of the Black Sea, and regional legal framework and marine bio-diversity in the area. Remaining chapters of the volume deal with the pollution, offshore activities that might potentially cause the pollution, current gaps in information, lessons learned and various recommendations. 

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 373 | | Comments (0)

Marine, Waterborne, and Water Resistant Polymers

   The present interesting title has been specifically compiled and published to present readers a good technical overview of the most important established methods, products plus various applications of marine biotechnology. The publication starts with the discussion of the chemical properties of the various marine polymers together with their types. Then, the author of the volume addressed the utilization of these materials in detail, paying some attention also to the methods of both analytical and characterization testing. The volume is also emphasizing the polymer materials considered maximum friendly to surrounding environment, along with their applications within the industries as well as the origin. The above mentioned polymers are broadly used in the industries, including various marine purposes, well applications and others. This book is arranged in four big part. While the first part is giving the general information on the marine polymers, the second part addresses all possible applications in the marine industry, including coatings, foams, anti-fouling, ropes, anti-corrosion materials, engine lubricants and others. The third part covers the waterborne polymers with the main accent made on the synthesis methods, waterborne coatings and also special applications. Finally, the closing part of the book has been dedicated to the water-resistant polymer materials.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 494 | | Comments (0)

Handbook of Sea-Level Research

   Conducting the measurements of the sea level changes is deservedly considered to be among the most pressing goals of today's marine science, and it requires application of the sophisticated scientific techniques and approaches. The initial aim of the authors of the present handbook was to provide the interested readers with the useful and practical guidelines assisting them in this challenge, starting from the stage of the initial design of various research approached, through to the practical matters of collection and further interpretation of the relevant technical data obtained from a broadest range of the coastal environments. The content of this volume is built on more than thirty years of researches, and the body of the work has been divided into thirty-eight chapters authored by the world leading experts. The publication is expected to serve as a very important and practically useful resource to be used by the scientists willing to get a proper understanding of the changes in the sea levels across a very wide range of relevant technical disciplines, plus policy-makers who are wishing to appreciate the actual situation with the knowledge of these changes, as well as university teachers and research students, who want to know more about this problem.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 548 | | Comments (0)

Chemical Marine Monitoring - Policy Framework and Analytical Trends

   This title was released to present the results of combined professional efforts by a team of the world recognized experts in marine chemistry; it forms a part of the popular "Water Quality Measurements" series. The volume is aimed for the postgraduates as well as specialists and scientists, together with the researchers directly involved in various activities in the filed of analytical chemistry. This work will definitely be found beneficial for all persons with the interest in the development of various materials and established analytical methods relating to the regulations addressing the drinking water. The authors of this comprehensive text have arranged the main content in several sections, covering the monitoring of marine pollutants, international conventions plus associated European Union marine strategy, addressing the marine parameters to be monitored, different chemical species and trace elements, nutrients and organic micro pollutants, types of the monitoring, including methods of biological monitoring and classic chemical monitoring, quality assurance matters, including various certified reference materials to be used when performing the monitoring, important issues directly relating to the development and research activities, explanation of the role of the sediments in coastal monitoring, and also various technologies for the passive sampling. Recommended to all people interested in marine science.​

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 437 | | Comments (0)

Ocean Forecasting - Conceptual Basis and Applications

   This interesting title prepared by John Woods in collaboration with Nadia Pinardi provides the conceptual basis and major applications of the ocean forecasting. The publication was specifically released to provide readers with a consistent and exceptionally comprehensive overview on various methods and popular applications of the ocean forecasting worldwide. Subject sector of marine technology and science is development very fast owing to the constantly increasing demand for the reliable and multi-disciplinary info related to the marine systems that would allow the sustainable utilization of the coastal resources as well as mitigation of potential global change effects. Some of the chapters of this book have been dedicated solely to the theoretical and conceptual basis of the ocean forecasting, that range from the design of the observational and modeling systems, established techniques of data assimilation, and modeling of numerical ecosystem. The volume is also covering numerous live examples of the forecasting and modeling systems that are either in use or being established. The publication is expected to be practical and also useful for both students and scientists in all relevant disciplines, since it will enable all of them to gain proper understanding of the current level of technical knowledge/performance of the forecasting systems existing today.​

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 645 | | Comments (0)

Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate

   This new book by Murry Salby was specifically written with the intention to provide all interested readers with an integrated treatment of all processes that control the Earth-Atmosphere system. The content of the volume has been developed on the basis of the initial principles through the proper balance of theory and possible applications. The book is built on the materials contained in the previous publication by the author, with its scope being significantly expanded to include the climate matters. This is an excellent textbook for the intermediate level students and we would recommend it to be used as the reference source for both researchers and graduates - the text in the publication is supported with the problems and their solutions explained in detail. The volume will provide a conceptual and at the same time quantitative understanding of the various controlling influences, that are integrated via the theory and their applications. The book was released to lead the readers through the development of the various physical processes shaping the weather, climate, and global energetics. There are several problems of different difficulty, presented at the end of the each chapter to develop the knowledge and quantitative application of the students; subject problems are supported by correct answers and solutions.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 704 | | Comments (0)

Tsunami - The Underrated Hazard

   This book by Edward Bryant describes very comprehensively the nature and process of tsunamis; the author outlined field evidence for detecting past tsunami events, and describes ones linked to the earthquakes, submarine landslides, volcanoes and impacts of meteorites. It is aimed to be the information source for researchers and students, though will be very useful for the general public interested in this sort of natural hazard. The main focus of this publication is formation of landscape features by tsunami; it is a really needed and up-to-date work with worldwide coverage. The lists of relevant figures, tables and symbols are included in the content of the book, together with acronyms and abbreviations used. The book starts with the introduction, supplemented with real-life stories and followed with the causes, characteristics and wave theory of tsunamis; the second chapters is dedicated to the landscapes formed by the tsunamis, including the depositional and erosional signatures. This chapter is followed with one addressing the evolution of the coastal landscape. The remaining chapters deal with the volcanic eruptions, comets and asteroids, great landslides, risk and avoidance. The stories forming the foundation of the description of tsunamis and associated discussions are based on the materials of the live examples.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 586 | | Comments (0)

Oceanography of the East Sea (Japan Sea)

   The volume prepared by a team of the world recognized specialists in the field of the oceanography was released as a brilliant result of their intention to provide the industry with the review of the researches conducted in different fields of the oceanography and concerned with the response of the sea in question to the changes in climate. The East Japan Sea is quite unique because of the very rapid and seriously amplified response to the changes in climate, including the long-term trends of both chemical and physical parameters at a rate almost doubling the global rate. The present publication is aimed to demonstrate the results obtained from the previously released sources in a duly organized way, and also to introduce a significantly updated view of the relevant researches that have been carried out recently. The content of the volume has been arranged in several chapters comprising the chemical, physical, geo- and biological aspects of the region in questions and the fisheries. The title has been specifically prepared for the students/researchers involved in the works related to the climate variability plus members of the oceanography community. The results presented in the book will also be of great use to the researchers working in the other fields.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 578 | | Comments (0)

Food Waste and Sustainable Food Waste Management in the Baltic Sea Region

   Today, the amount of the food that is thrown away every year worldwide, reaches around 1.3 billion tonnes. This book is intended to presents the major findings of an extensive piece of research on the state of the problems related to the food waste in several countries, as further stated in the book. The results obtained are showing that the scale of the problem with regard to food waste varies between each country and is limited by an insufficient number of studies performed in the area. In almost all of the countries covered within the book, this problem is considered most prevalent in the area of food wastes that are commonly generated by the manufacturing sector, for example from inefficient utilization of the by-products. In Sweden and Germany, the main problem is a food being thrown away by the households; however, subject food could still be suitable for consumption. The values reach sixty-five and thirty-five percent, respectively. The method of the reduction or prevention of the food wastes most often applied across the seven countries is the donation of food. In addition, Germany has initiated a large number of engagement campaigns and activities aimed at reduction of food waste, whereas, Sweden has launched projects only focused on single organizations or institutions...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 774 | | Comments (0)

CO2 in Seawater - Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes

   This publication should serve as an essential book for those industry professionals who are planning to work with the carbon dioxide system in seawater. It is intended to serve as a valuable reference tool for both experienced people and students. Next to nitrogen, oxygen and argon, carbon dioxide is deservedly considered the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. And, it is also one of the critically important greenhouse gases, straight next to the water vapor. Nearly all of this gas is stored in the world ocean in the form of the dissolved organic carbon. In order to properly understand the processes taking place in the marine carbon cycle, we have to possess a thorough and deep technical knowledge of the sea-water carbonate chemistry, and this would include both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties, for example the stable isotope fractionation. The present volume was released with the intention of its authors, D. Wolf-Gladrow an R. Zeebe, to present all interested readers with a comprehensive overview and a synthesis of the above stated subjects, and this title will be useful to everyone including enthusiasts, students and professionals in the fields of marine biology, oceanography, marine chemistry and biology, biogeochemistry and others, as all of them will find the information in this book very practical.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 726 | | Comments (0)

Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles

   And here is the excellent handbook specifically designed and released for the environmental managers and policy-makers who are working for the water authorities and will also be useful for the engineering companies directly involved in various water quality programs, especially ones in the developing countries. The book will also be found suitable when used as a textbook or main/supplementary training material for the associated WQM training courses. The recent years showed the constantly increasing awareness of the water pollution and serious concern about it all around the planet. Numerous completely new approached have been introduced and developed in order to achieve the sustainable and reasonable exploitation of the various water resources. It goes without any saying that the duly worked out policy framework is a critically important element in water resource management. The opening chapter of this volume is intended to propose some of the general principles for the entire process of policy making and of the structure or relevant policy documentation. The text is supplemented with several real life examples of the policy elements supporting the sustainable management of the resources. The other chapters concentrate on the strategy formulation and outline the major guiding principles for the control of the water pollution.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 719 | | Comments (0)

Chemical Oceanography

   Today, we are introducing the latest, fourth edition of the volume that has been significantly updated using the very recent literature. The content of the book remains basing on graduate/undergraduate university courses which the author has taught for the past forty-five years. Over the past decade numerous new and interesting large-scale oceanographic programmes have been introduced, including the GDMP, standing for the geochemical trace metal program, and climate variability program. This program is mainly intended to contribute in proper understanding the bio-geochemical cycles of trace elements in the water. The basic studies have already demonstrated the input of both Fe and Pb from the hydrothermal vents and the redox behavior of metals in waters with low content of oxygen. The above mentioned studies are expected to produce lots of valuable information related to the biogeochemistry. The constantly increasing content of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, that is resulting from the burning of various fossil fuels is continuing to affect the atmosphere as well as the oceans. The temperature of the surface waters is also increasing and is consequently causing stratification in the oceans. This all has already led to numerous areas of low oxygen in coastal ocean waters. Each year many oceanographers are doing their best to duly contribute to the rapidly expanding technical knowledge of the oceans. The author has made an excellent attempt to build and update this intro to Chemical Oceanography with new understanding and modern concepts...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1414 | | Comments (0)

   The present identification guide is using composite plates of photos readers with proper identification of the offshore marine wildlife, meaning the things that you can see at sea, be they sharks, whales, dolphins, birds, sea lions, or jellyfish. Once you have a name, numerous other resources will help you learn more about the creatures that inhabit the oceans. But that all-important handle, a species name, is the first step in the cascade of knowledge. This book is an easily accessible and brief guidance covering virtually ass see mammals as well as the sea birds. The descriptions provided by the author are very clear and the photographs are clear.  The reader all around the world have already this work amazingly useful since it is quite small but yet complete. The illustrations are perfect and cover all species. Great and easily understandable descriptions made this book so popular among the professionals and enthusiasts. In fact, this is the only guide to the offshore sea life having such a compact size, providing about three hundred images and the wording that is suitable even for the beginners. We recommend it to be used as a quick and very handy reference tool for the naturalists conducting the boat trips...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 723 | | Comments (0)

Mediterranean Sea - Ecosystems, Economic Importance and Environmental Threats

   In the present popular and useful publication, the authors have perfectly presented a very thorough topical research in the study of the eco-systems as well as economic significance and potential threats to the environment of the Mediterranean Sea region. Among the topics that have been covered within this volume, there are the necessity for the business-oriented and economic approach to the associated ecosystem services. The publication also addresses the matters of marine pollution caused by the shipwrecks located at the bottom of the sea and various effects of the PFW, standing for the so-called "produced formation water" on the marine environment in the subject region. In addition to above, the authors have paid particular and close attention to the environmental modeling plan covering both construction and operation of the marine terminal for the re-gasifying of the LNG in the North Adriatic Sea, and they have also dealt with the study of various biologically active peptides from the venom of the cone snail conus ventricosus in the Mediterranean Sea. In short, this title is expected to be of great practical use for all people having serious interest in this geographic area, together with its ecological system and existing threats to the environment.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 640 | | Comments (0)

Polymers in a Marine Environment

   The plastics and polymers, as well as various composite materials are in wide use throughout the shipping industry; therefore they are commonly get exposed to the sea water. The biological fouling of the marine waters inevitably leads to the different problems for the vessels and boats, namely in the form of progressing corrosion of the hull and reduced speed of the ship, which the industry would like to prevent. Hundreds of thousand tones of plastic wastes discarded to the sea every year, reach the environment because of the various shipping activities and land run-off. Today, it is estimated that about one million of the marine animals are killer by choking on floating plastics or due to entanglement in the debris made by plastic wastes, and the main reason for that is the slow degradation of the plastic materials. The polymers applied in the shipping industry, shall not foul and shall be stable for the long periods of exposure to the marine environment. The present volume is covering the polymers' interaction with the marine environment and associated problems to the ecology, as well as their biological degradation and fouling, together with the possible solutions. That is why it is recommended to the people with the interest in utilization of these materials in the maritime industry and environment protection. 

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 750 | | Comments (0)

The Land-Sea Interactions

   This publication was worked out by Patrick Prouzet in collaboration with Andre Monaco, with the ultimate intention to provide readers with a systemized professional view of the existing wide diversity of the impacts as well as pressures that are commonly produced by the changes in climate and by the actions by humans. The erosion of the biological diversity caused by changing of the chemistry of the ocean, ongoing intensification of the global changes are raising the serious problem of the adaptation of various living resources to the new used conditions. The land uses are inducing the eco-imbalances that, in turn, lead to the asphyxiation of the true coastal ecological systems. There is a constant necessity for the marine environments and associated food webs to assimilate more than one billion tons of the solid wastes. In addition to that, the discharges of various radioactive materials that are emitting to the atmosphere or water, is also raising the serious question of their future. The book consists of five chapters addressing the continent-sea interface, tracers of the exchanges, eutrophication of the sea environment, marine pollution caused by the debris, and radioactivity having the anthropic origin. Some of the images are there at the end of the volume to supplement the text.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 892 | | Comments (0)

Development of Marine Resources

   The process of the exploitation of various marine resources, their recovery and economic networks generated by them have been duly addressed in this book from the perspective of continually growing environmental constraints, as well as the associated technical innovation and policy management. The latest developments in the field of marine biotechnology and marine renewable resources, show that man could develop new technologies services and property of the ocean through them. But, the above stated resources for the development necessitates taking into consideration all technical and social plus also political aspects, and this would be the actual price of both sustainability and also development of the different coastal populations together with the economic sectors, facing with the major objectives of a so-called "blue growth" and reverting to the good state of environment. The book has four major chapters. The first chapter has been mainly dedicated to the general matters of fishing in the Mediterranean area, providing some historical background and also shedding some light on the associated technical changes. The second chapter is concentrating on the microalgae and biotechnology. In turn, the third chapter of the publication addresses the pharmacology of the reef marine organisms; Marine Renewable Energies. Last chapter of the volume is dealing with the marine renewable energies.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 882 | | Comments (0)

Acoustic Fish Reconnaissance

   For a long time and until now, there has been a serious need for the work that would systematically present the whole subject of the acoustic fish reconnaissance and detailing all the most important and major technical aspects of the application of the acoustic equipment in the field of commercial fish reconnaissance, and also offering readers sufficiently deep and thorough analysis of the actual effectiveness of the established fish-finding techniques. he publication by K. Yudanov and I. Kalikhman was specifically worked out and released to respond to this need through provision of the required comprehensive overview of both theoretical and practical aspects of the acoustic detection and search, as well as the interpretation and estimation of the population, performed for commercial benefit. Particular and close attention has been paid by the authors to the accounting surveys for the quantitative estimation of relevant bio-resources and fishing conditions in the areas considered traditional for fishing activities. They have also analyzed different applications of the acoustic technique on the basis of the extensive investigations carried out by themselves. The main content of the volume includes the results of the applicability of the various fish-finding tools, and useful recommendations on the improvement of the techniques in question.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 932 | | Comments (0)

Network Economics of Marine Ecosystems and their Exploration

   The title is first of all intended to show the readers the ways of proper application of the common principles and mostly used tools of the network economics, for instance the problems of variational inequalities and complementarily, and studying of the large natural systems being exploited, particularly marine systems, at different levels, namely regional, continental and also global levels. The systems that have been addressed in this book, are actually being exposed to the changes in climate and to the globalization of the economy, i.e. the phenomenon first defined by O'Brien and Leichenko as the "double exposure". The present volume has been organized in four major parts. The first part of the book is introducing the issues, discussing the marine ecosystems that are subject to the above mentioned double exposure, providing the required intro to the network theories, with particular attention being paid to the relationship between functions and structures, diversity of the terms and formalisms, as well as applications, and arbitrariness of the graphical representations, discussing the equilibrium vs dynamics issue, presenting the math instruments forming the necessary background for application of the network economics approach; they also introduce the notations and principles, convex optimization, and so many other important aspects. 

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 763 | | Comments (0)

Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

   The Baltic Sea is deservedly treated as a unique basin - it is relatively shallow and small, and should rather be looked at a series of separate basins connected to the Atlantic Ocean only by means of the Danish Straits. The water exchange through the above mentioned series of straits is quite limited, and as a result of the positive balance of the fresh water, the water mass of the Baltic Sea is brackish, with its mean salinity being about seven per cent — 1/5 of the salinity of normal ocean waters. This elongated sea lies between maritime temperate and continental sub-Arctic climate zones. During the winter time, it is partly covered by ice, and at most severe winters it is completely frozen over. The variable coastal geo-morphology and the wide archipelago areas give the Baltic Sea its individual appearance. There are four major brackish water basins in the World Ocean, as further discussed in the book. The mean depth of the Black Sea is about 1200 metres and, owing to the strong salinity stratification and extremely slow renewal of the deep water, the water masses below 200 m are anoxic... In short, the publication will be very useful for the people involved in oceanographic and other activities in the area because of the information included by the authors.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1003 | | Comments (0)

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