Suppose for a minute, what if you have been assigned the task to perform the mapping of the general circulation in some completely unfamiliar ocean. The ocean is sub-divided into several basins as well as marginal seas which, in turn, are connected with each others by means of the sea straits. Taking into consideration the possible budget limits for this task, you would most probably choose the sea straits as the starting points for the observation.

To start with, the ocean currents that flow between the basins, over the wide paths that can also be time-varying, are commonly confined to the relatively stable and narrow routes within those straits. Such confinement could result in the profound dynamical consequences, one of them being the choking/hydraulic control; subject process is quite similar to a process by which a dams are regulating the flows from the reservoirs.

Geometry of the funneling may lead to the significantly increased velocities and enhanced tidal modulation, which would in turn lead to the local instabilities, internal bores, plus jumps and mixing, and other events. Shortly, the straits shall be treated as the choke points being dynamically and observationally strategic and containing a broad range of physical processes, all of them being addressed within this book.

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The book is primarily intended for the students at the undergraduate level, who are studying various disciplines and actually anyone willing to learn a bit more about the marine environment. The publication will allow readers to get immerse in a world of marine biology and quickly get enough technical knowledge.

When working on the publication, the authors have applied the ecological approach that made the text of the volume very practical, providing distinct and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and supplemented with numerous photographs as well as artwork clearly illustrating the very key aspects. The combined efforts of the authors have resulted in the volume making the process of study easier.

The book is featuring a good and comprehensive glossary of terms, together with the questions at the end of each chapter, pronunciations, as well as a list of web resources and relevant articles. We would say that this is one of the best available titles aimed at the students.

The pictures are well-placed and very easy to understand. The text provides readers with valuable professional surveys over all important aspects of marine ecology on all levels, for example evolutionary/ecological levels. You will get the required general introduction on every topic.

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One of the main aims of the author in writing this relatively compact textbook was mainly to produce a good and understandable text that would be enhancing the natural enthusiasm of the students for the ocean. It was actually students' request for a readable, engaging, and thorough text that initiated the project a long time ago. Through the nearly thirty years the author has been writing textbooks, and his enthusiasm for oceanic knowledge has increased, forcing his reviewers and editors to weed out an excessive number of exclamations.

However, the enthusiasm does shine through... This clear and current book is considered one of the most popular and also deservedly recognized all around the world. This revision of the publication is including the updated info related to the problem of global warming, and the text of the book is supplemented with numerous informative illustrations. Increased emphasis has been made by the author on the inter-disciplinary idea of the marine science.

The author is bringing the focus to the excitement to the quite complex nature of the world ocean; in addition, he also addresses the interaction of the ocean with other systems. Definitely, this is one of the most important and must-have titles on the bookshelf of literally any oceanography and marine science student, professional or enthusiast.

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This volume prepared by three authors - Giovanni Randazzo, Andrew Cooper and Derek Jackson - is drawing together a series of specific studies related to the geomorphology and temporal evolution of the spits in all areas of the world. The publication offers its readers some of the truly unique insights into the examination of the subject landforms from the scientific viewpoint; the author also addressed how the people impact these landforms and provided a global perspective on the genesis and evolution of the spits.

The spits are treated as the natural environments with their evolution being linked to the coast as well as the supply of the sediments, morphology of the near shore area, changes in the sea level and coastal dynamics. Note that the GMSL, standing for the global mean sea level, has already risen by ten to twenty centimeters over the past century. There were several scientific researches that indicated that the sea levels all around the world have been rising since the early 1990s, and the average rate was about 3.5 millimeters per year.

And this trend, when linked to the ongoing process of global warming, will inevitable be causing significant major changes in the morphology of spits, representing a sort of signature of past changes in the environment and providing a natural landform indicator of the changes to climate.

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It has been already recognized that a serious need exists there for the suitable and secure long-term sustainable forms of energy. One of such forms of energy that could help people to achieve the sustainable energy future, will be the energy obtained from marine environment, for example from tidal currents, wind and waves etc.

The human understanding of possible environmental impacts and of the suitable methods of mitigation that are associated with the extraction of the energy is constantly improving; therefore it is considered essential to properly distinguish between the anthropocentric and natural impacts and drivers. The fossil sources of fuel are obviously finite and the it will definitely require suitable sustainable alternative forms of energy.

In addition to that, there are concerns about the our reliance on the burning of the existing fossils plus the release of the greenhouse gases that are caused by the burning of the fossil fuels, and this all is for sure contributing to the changes in climate of the Earth that is taking place so rapidly.

The total usage of the energy has already grown significantly and the demand for the energy is expected to grow along with the needs of the  growing human population. In short, it is the high time to concentrate on the renewable sources of energy and have a look into possible impacts on the environment...

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Despite of the implications of relevant decisions made on PSSA by the IMO, subject concept has not yet received too much of academic interest. That is why the present book by Dr. Julian Roberts bringing the serious value to this issue very timely. The author is providing the industry with the introduction to the complete legal framework of the protection of the marine environment and regulation of the shipping activities; in addition, he looked into the development of the whole PSSA concept and provides a very detailed examination of the applicable requirements.

The author has also looked in detail at the way subject requirements are applied by the IMO Committees. In his work, he is developing a critique of the actual practical application of the requirements and is suggesting that the guidelines that have been developed, have sometimes been applied not logically with not enough procedural and scientific rigor.

Moreover, in this work  the other regimes of protection of the marine environment have also been examined. He performs the analysis of the regional congestion areas and provides readers with the ammunition for the completely new strategic approaches in the area. The recommendations provided by the author are very practical and thoughtful.

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This interesting and rare monograph has been written by the recognized professional and experienced oceanologist; it was released with the sole intention to provide the today's industry with the correct results of the developments, as well as practical solutions worked out by the author in the course of formulating the major principles of ecological geography of the sea.

The first chapter of this monograph states the key methodological principles of visualization of ecological data for the dissemination between the users; this would result in the development of the geo-and-eco model of the sea basin. The second chapter of the document considers both ecological and geographic sides of math modeling f the marine eco-systems, together with the key features and capabilities of some relevant models. The other six chapters of the monograph have been dedicated to the history of formation of the hydrological structure, summer suffocation causes, potential impact the sea fish farms, self-purification from the pollution caused by oil spills, consequence of the various economic activities, etc.

The theoretical part of the book has been supplemented with numerous very informative examples illustrating it. The closing chapter of the monograph sheds some light on the major world problems associated with the exploitation of the marine resources.

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The present publication is dedicated toxins in the sea water and fresh water; it is intended to present the structure of the main toxins having the aquatic origin - the reader will find information relating to the distribution of subject toxins, producing various species and vectors, some of the important toxico-kinetic properties, regulatory management aspects etc. The main species of those associated with the injuries have also been addressed in this volume.

Among the marine toxins that have been covered within this publication there are ciguatoxina, equinatoxins, brevetoxins and some others - note that all of them could be lethal. Nowadays, both sea- and fresh water environments are considered new frontiers of humanity; however, the continuing increase in economic and tourist activities is provoking some nasty encounters between people and aquatic animals. The swimmers, surfers, divers and fishermen are becoming main victims. Unfortunately, today it is still not possible to adequately identify, know and treat the envenomations that are commonly caused by the poisonous and venomous animals.



Plus, it shall be underlined as necessary that we are still not fully aware of the huge potential of the pharmacologic effects their toxins may have. That is why it does make sense to go through the chapters of this volume to have better idea of this subject quite important any marine scientist.



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