||L. M. Bugayevskiy, John Snyder
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The successful solution to many problems related to commerce and science is based on a wide use of maps of various scales, contents, and purposes. Maps have a number of features and advantages. Among them is a one-to-one correspondence of elements of nature and society and their representation on the map. Maps serve as a basis for measuring and obtaining various qualitative and quantitative characteristics necessary for solving scientific and commercial problems. Maps have highly important informational and cognitive properties. They can be used for objective investigation into specific problems in various fields of economics and science (navigation, land use and forest organization, organization of private and governmental facilities, etc.). The capacity to solve these problems is based on the fact that positions on maps can be determined on a strictly mathematical basis, the study and elaboration of which is the subject of mathematical cartography. Mathematical cartography deals with the theory of map projections, map scales and their variation, the division of maps into sets of sheets, and nomenclature, as well as with problems of making measurements and carrying out the investigation of various phenomena from maps. Mathematical cartography also includes the study of map projections which make use of geodetic measurements and the development of graphical methods for solving problems of spherical trigonometry and astronomy, marine navigation and aeronavigation, and even crystallography. It is also the basis for developing the theory of methods and techniques for map design.