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Actual Ships Stability Problems and the Influence on Safety of Navigation

   The present book is very important and useful because of the approach applied by the author to the problems relating to the loss of ship stability by means of the study of different operational aspects together with the dynamic ship behavior in severe condition of the sea and offering a complete picture of the selected modes of stability failure not currently covered by any criteria or applicable regulation. The original motivation for the idea that has driven subject approach and the requirement to address the assessment of the ship stability is coming from numerous observations on losses of stability and capsizing of the ships. Though there are several regulations in force that all refer to the stability of the vessels, so many ships continue to loss their stability and capsize. The subjects elucidated within this volume represent parts of the works relating to the critical importance of the assessment of ship stability and fit into the complex research system relating to the intact stability of the vessels, and particularly to the failure modes and how the proper assessment of the stability might prevent the possible losses. Five chapters of the book provide the general information and provide the historical background and analysis, cover the failure modes including ones in the severe conditions, and shed some light on the possible improvement in the field.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1170 | | Comments (0)

The Geometry of Ships

   Geometry is the discipline directly dealing with the properties and measurements plus the relationships of the points and their sets. Vessels and other marine structures are really large and usually quite complex objects therefore the final success of their planning and further production mostly depends on proper geometric descriptions of the components they usually consist of, as well as on their positional relationships. Traditionally, a 3D models of representation are utilized, and particularly at different scales and lesser levels of details in comparison to the actual objects. The process of producing real products commonly consumes large quantities of the material, human and time resources which will of course be considered wasted should the final result of this production process be functioning not in a way it was originally supposed to function. This volume covers the most important aspects of the ship geometry, such as the geometric modeling as applied to the marine design, coordinate systems, geometry of curves/surfaces, subdivision surfaces and geometry of solid objects, polygon meshes, definition of the hull surface, weight/displacement, form coefficients of the ship hulls, hydrostatic analysis, capacity and arrangement issues including tonnage, subdivision of the compartments, tank and container capacity, decks and bulkheads as well as superstructures and hull appendages...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2192 | | Comments (0)

Stability and Safety of Ships - Risk of Capsizing   A new, revised edition of the book; it's content is based on the revised content of the original edition subjected to serious revision to correct the existing errors and also to update the text part. It comes quite clear from the thorough review of the established international/national practices of stability regulation that the development of the associated standards has been initially commenced by the leading experts working in the field of naval architecture. The ultimate objection of setting up the technical standards that pertain to the stability of the vessels was to ensure the safe operation of the vessels and eliminate the possibility of their capsizing. The materials presented in this volume are arranged in two big parts addressing the probabilistic approach to the ship stability and also risk assessment and dynamics of ship's capsizing. While the first part of the volume is mainly dedicated to the philosophy of the probabilistic evaluation of ship stability/safety plus of the loading and environmental conditions, its second part covers the equations for the non-linear motions of the ship, capsizing of the vessels in regular beam, quartering and following seas, different factors commonly affecting capsizing, motions in irregular seas, capsizing probability and other aspects. The appendix at the end of this volume has been fully dedicated to the Nechaev method.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1440 | | Comments (0)

Vibration

   Several quite significant technical developments and achievements have been accomplished in the area of ship hull vibration during past couple of decades allowing for serious improvements in the technologies for design of ships through avoidance of the excessive hull vibration. The present volume has been specifically designed to deal with the most important technical of the vibration of hull. This book is opening with the intro section that provides designers with the general info and also basic definitions. The second section is dealing with the theory and concepts of vibration, including the continuous and discrete analysis together with the underwater radiated noise and ship propeller exciting forces. The third section of the title mainly covers the analysis and design issues including basic considerations plus design approaches, added mass and excitation of the diesel engine/propellers, stiffness of foundation of the main thrust bearing, approximate evaluations governing the natural frequencies of the superstructure, cavitation noise etc. The last section of the volume covers the criteria of vibration, its measurement including design verification and corrective investigation, and post-trial corrections including both hydrodynamic and structural modifications, propeller change and determining the model constraints. Very useful title for all ship designers.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2032 | | Comments (0)

Ship Resistance and Flow

   One of the most serious problems of contemporary naval architecture is the correct prediction of the resistance of the newly developed designs at the earlier stages of the project. At the time of the ordering of the new vessel, a contract that contains the technical specification is signed between the yard and the future ship owner. Among the most important specifications is the contract speed of the ship, i.e. the speed attained to the particular power consumption during the sea trials carried out straight after the delivery. Subject trials are supposed to be carried out under the ideal weather conditions. However, in the real life numerous corrections have to be made to the influence of the various environmental factors. In case corrected speed of the vessel appears to be lower than the one specified in the contract, the shipyard will have to pay a penalty to the ship owner, and this penalty will mainly depend on the difference noted between the contract speed and the speed achieved during the trials. And, should this difference be too large, ship owner may even refuse to accept the newly built ship. This volume covers all aspects of the ship resistance and flow, including the governing equations, resistance decomposition, types and proof of similarity, flow around the ship hull. experimental prediction of the hull resistance and its numerical prediction and others. 

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2878 | | Comments (0)

Intact Stability

   During two decades that have passed since the original publication of this book, there have been several significant technical advances in the field of design and construction of vessels and oether marine floating structures. For example, nowadays, computers are among the critically important instruments in any engineering environment, including marine engineering and ship hull construction and computers have already replaced the ubiquitous slide rules of the shipbuilding engineers of earlier generations. Note that the advances concepts and computational methods are still under development and some of them are introduced as a part of common naval engineering practice of today. These advanced practices include the FEM, standing for the finite element analysis, CFD, i.e. computational fluid dynamics, numerical modeling of the ship hull form and associated coefficients, random methods of processing, and some of them have already been incorporated into the newly established design and manufacturing systems. The book covers all important aspects of the intact ship stability starting from its elementary principles, determination of the weights of the vessels and their centers of gravity, stability curves and metacentric height, effects that the free liquid surfaces and changes in weights have on stability, inclining test, stability of the grounded vessel, submerged equilibrium etc.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2568 | | Comments (0)

Creating Shapes in Civil and Naval Architecture

   The content of this volume is mainly based on the results obtained in the course of the international Workshop which took place in Berlin and dedicated to creating of the shapes in both naval and civil architecture. The authors of the paper are presenting the very final version of the fourteen articles that have been presented at that time together with four relevant appendices. Subject workshop was intentionally held to lay the certain basics in a comparative study of the history of technical knowledge in two above mentioned disciplines. We know that the naval architecture is treating the conception, design and subsequent realization for the maritime structures. The subject of creating shapes was considered a focal interest point for the comparisons carried out between two above mentioned disciplines due to the important role it plays in development of the objects. The discussions and presentations that took place during that workshop and then included in this volume in the form of results are following such objectives as collection and documenting of the sources of shape creating-related knowledge, classification of the procedural and practical knowledge, enumeration of the important milestones, placing priorities related to the design and construction of the objects, relevant historical changes, comparison of different styles and methodologies of shape design, terminology, real life case studies etc.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1403 | | Comments (0)

The Aero- and Hydromechanics of Keel Yachts

   All intended readers will definitely find that the present volume is not a sort of books with glossy images of fabulous and glamorous yachts. It is much more scientific and sober than those titles. The main objective of the compilers of the present training course was to provide all interested readers, and yachtsmen in particular with the racing ambitions with a good technical background of the mechanics of sailing, including both hydro- and aeromechanics. The original intention of the author of the volume was to present all materials in a way that could be justifiable from his own background, while all efforts have been made to keep the content easily accessible for the people without actual academic schooling. The book starts with a list of used notations and symbols followed by the introductory chapter. Then the main content of the publication comes arranged in several sections covering the geometry of the sailing yacht and mass properties, basic mechanics and fundamental elements of the fluid mechanics, forces acting above the surface of the water, i.e. aerodynamics, and forces acting under the water, i.e. hydrodynamics, sailing hydrodynamics and aerodynamics, retrospection. Several appendices are there at the end of the volume providing some valuable additional information on mathematical notions, Kelvin ship waves, and other important aspects.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1767 | | Comments (0)

Principles of Naval Architecture Vol. 1

   One of the most popular and classical books on naval architecture, "Principles" is arranged in three volumes. You will find the first of the volumes here (and here are Part 2 and Part 3). The initial edition of this book was released in 1939 and, according to the editors, adequately covered the whole field of naval architecture in a single text. The revision hereby presented to your attention has been conducted in order to duly reflect all recent technical developments and make all necessary improvements to the original content. This book ia actually aimed to bring the subject of naval architecture up-to-date by means of re-writing the areas where the most important advances took place. One of the main objectives of this set of books is to provide all readers having serious interest in naval architecture with a remarkably timely survey of the fundamental principles; the books are expected to be of great use for active professional as well as for the students. The content of the first volume has been arranged in four big parts covering the geometry of the vessel including the lines drawing, form coefficients, relationship between weight and displacement, hydrostatic curves, capacity etc., elementary principles of intact stability, its evaluation, displacement, trim, draft and other characteristics, subdivision of the hull and damage stability, and, finally, the strength of the ship's hull.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 4550 | | Comments (0)

Principles of Naval Architecture Vol. 2

   The second part of the set (here are Part 1 and Part 3). This books addresses the ship resistance, ship propulsion and ship vibration. The ship resistance-related chapter provides all necessary theoretical information of the resistance types, surface vessels and submerged objects, dimensional analysis, frictional and wave-making resistance, plus other resistance components, use of the models for determination of the hull resistance, presentation of the model resistance data, HSC and advanced marine vehicles, and relation of the ship hull form to its resistance. The propulsion-related chapter deals with the powering of vessels, propeller action theory, similitude law, self-propulsion tests, geometry of the screw propellers, interaction between ship's hull and propeller, cavitation, ducted propellers, various design matters, standardization trials and other devices for ship propulsion. Finally, the chapter covering the ship vibration provides the general information on the subject, covering the fundamental theoretical concepts, analysis and design issues including diesel engine and propeller excitation, applicable criteria and associated measurements, and other topics. The separate part of the volume has been dedicated to the nomenclature used throughout the book and in naval architecture, in general.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2660 | | Comments (0)

Principles of Naval Architecture Vol. 3

   And this is the third part of volume of the set of Naval Architecture books (Part 1 and Part 2 here), and the present volume is dedicated to the motion of ships in waves and their controllability, i.e. the last two chapters of the course. Taking into account the importance of all recent theoretical and also experimental developments in the subject fields, the authors considered it necessary to fully rewrite the content of both those chapters and to add a great portion of the new material. The chapter on motion in waves covers such the important aspects as the characteristics ocean waves, their origin and propagation, responses of the vessel to the ocean waves, ships in the seaways, derived responses and ship motion control, assessment of the ship seaway performance, various aspects of design, and relevant nomenclature. The chapter covering the controllability addresses the control loop together with the basic equations of ship motion. stability and associated linear equations, stability and control, turning ability, controls-fixed stability and coursekeeping, hydraulic models, free-running tests, non-linear motion equations, acceleration/stopping/backing, hydrodynamic coefficients, auto-control systems, waterway interactions, performance requirements, design applications, special symbols, control devices and many other critically important topics.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 4466 | | Comments (0)

Ship stability for masters and mates   One of the most popular and practical books on ship stability. This textbook has been subjected to a full review and update by its new author in order to ensure a modern and deep coverage of all relevant topics. The main content of the publication has been provided with a completely new and unique introductory part giving the types of the vessels together with the general characteristics; this has been done to indicated to the reader the typical or actual sizes of the merchant ships of today. In addition, there are four completely new chapters covering the ship squat, interaction, deadweight scale and, finally, trim and stability. There is also one more new section in the Appendices and it deals with the draft surveys - the content of this section has been re-written to make it more understandable for the students of naval architecture. The authors have paid really careful attention to the fundamental theoretical principles of ship stability and strength, and they have given so many exercise questions and worked examples to make sure that the students who really work through this volume will have good results. This is an excellent textbook delving into many basic matters of ship stability and therefore great for all categories of readers, from students to the pro engineers; it shall also be used as a very helpful shipboard reference book.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 4629 | | Comments (0)

Principles of Naval Engineering

   This text has been originally prepared and published for the engineering officers to provide them with the basics of the shipboard machinery and equipment as well as of the engineering plants. The authors of the paper have also given some general description of the development of the naval vessels, their design and construction, naval architecture aspects such as buoyancy and intact/damage stability, and casualty control. The explanation of the engineering theories has been provided on the background of the propulsion and steering of the vessels, systems of lubrication, thermodynamics, energy exchanges and measuring devices. The machinery of the ships has been dealt with in detail. The publication concludes by a thorough and interesting survey covering the newly developed ship hull forms, propulsion and steering arrangements, systems for direct conversion of the energy, central operation systems, combined power plants etc. The text is supplemented with numerous informative illustrations and data tables. The authors have tried to assist students to acquire an overall view of the engineering plants installed on board and properly understand all associated theoretical considerations underlying the design of shipboard machinery and equipment. Note that the details of the operation of the vessels, as well as of the maintenance and repair of the shipboard equipment is not covered.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2055 | | Comments (0)

Text-book of Theoretical Naval Architecture   Here is a re-print of the classic book on the theoretical foundations of naval architecture. This book will be of great interest for the naval architects and other workers of the shipbuilding facilities and drawing offices because it will offer them an excellent text clearly explaining all associated calculations, The author of this volume is also expecting that his work may serve as a standard textbook covering the whole theoretical portion of the exam in naval architecture. Unfortunately, it was not possible to include literally all subjects, for example such subjects as the advanced stability work, vibration, rolling of the vessels and some others. However, the author has really made his best to cover as many of the important topics of naval architecture as possible, and to provide readers with a huge amount of interesting and understandable theoretical information on the naval architecture basics. One of the special features of this title is the number of practical examples presented in the text of the book as well as at the end of the chapters. These subject are aimed to help students test their grasps of processes and processes covered within the paper. Most of the examples have been taken from the real calculations of different drawing offices and this makes them practically useful.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1646 | | Comments (0)

Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics

   The present title was specifically released to assess the current situation in the field of the CFD, standing for the computational fluid dynamics, applied to the hydrodynamics of vessels; it is also intended to provide all specialists in this area with the required technical guidance to be used to the future developments. The main content of this volume is based on the materials presented during the stability workshop held in 2010 in Gothenburg. The book is presenting the test cases as well as the data collected during the experiments and various computational methods. The publication also contains detailed analysis of the errors for local and global flow variables, including the standard deviations for the global variables and also propeller modeling for the self-propulsion. The authors of the materials contained in the book have also evaluated the effects of the grid size and also turbulence models and conducted the thorough analysis of the turbulence modeling capabilities to capture the physics of the local flow. They have used the resistance submissions for evaluation of the errors and uncertainties using the systematic V&V, i.e. verification and validation, study together with the statistical investigations. Moreover, they have also analyzed all related computational and experimental studies...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1695 | | Comments (0)

Contemporary Ideas on Ship Stability and Capsizing in Waves

   People interested in contemporary ship stability are aware that luckily some significant progress has been attained in ship stability during last couple of decades. However, there are still some challenges that require proper input, such as the accurate prediction of the capsize dynamics and extreme motions of the vessels, both in intact conditions and damaged. Among such challenging areas we would also mention the probabilistic nature of the extreme events, various criteria reflecting both physics and operational safety of the vessels, and ways of providing all relevant technical information on the safe handling of ships. The present title is intended to give readers an exceptionally comprehensive and thorough review of all above stated issues by selecting the representative documents presented in the course of several international conferences and workshops on stability. The list of topics covered within this publication includes the stability criteria and intact ship stability, parametric roll and broaching-to, roll damping, non-linear dynamics and probabilistic assessment of capsizing, environmental modeling. design for the ship safety, naval vessel stability, application of the CFD, i.e. computational fluid dynamics, methods to the stability, and investigation of the accidents involving ship capsizing. In short, the book contains professional articles formally presented by the world leaders in the field of stability.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1575 | | Comments (0)

Kite Dynamics for Ship Propulsion

   The kite propulsion has already emerged as one of the promising and attractive ways of harnessing the power of the wind to yield the financial and also environmental benefits. In order to better facilitate both design and optimization of the propulsion systems of this type, people have to possess a thorough understanding of the dynamics affecting the kite motion and all resulting forces. The present thesis contains the results obtained from two line tension models and those results have been compared with the time histories for the flights collected during the experiments. Some new methodologies for the investigation of kite performance have been established. The first model is the "zero mass model" assuming that both kite and lines have no weight, while the second model - "lumped mass model" considers the mass of the kite and therefore makes use of the motion equation. It has been determined that both models converge to same results in the limit where the mass of the kite is tending to zero. The publication covers such important topics related to the kite propulsion as experimental methods to record the trajectories of the flights, comparison of the models mentioned above, determination of the kite forces using 3D flight trajectories, fuel saving issues etc.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1011 | | Comments (0)

Development of Second Generation Intact Stability Criteria

   The whole process of design and further operation of the commercial vessels have been subjected to the significant changes during past decades. All of those changes together with the serious impact they have on the intact stability performance of vessels, have motivated the specialists of the IMO to develop the second generation criteria of intact stability. Among the most important modes of stability failure, considered primary, we would note the pure loss of ship stability, broaching-to and parametric roll resistance. The stability criteria addressed in this publication have been designed in a multi-layered structure, with the first two layers consisting of level 1/2 vulnerability criteria mainly used for the preliminary checks of the risk of dynamic stability failure during the design stage. The present document describes the valuable contribution of the US specialists to the development of those criteria including all stability failure modes. Sufficient level of the intact stability of the vessel is the most basic and important requirement. The working group dealing with the development of the second generation criteria for the intact stability of ships, has outlines three major modes of stability failures. One of the modes is the stability of the vessel under dead-ship conditions, as defined bi the corresponding SOLAS regulation contained in II-1/3-8. The other two modes cover the restoring arm variation and maneuvering related problems...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1258 | | Comments (0)

Course Of Ships Stability and Trim

   An excellent course to be checked by all students of naval architecture. The book was prepared and published by the Maritime University Constanta. The main content of this publication has been divided into numerous sections. The first section of the book addresses the basic principles and introduces the students to the laws that are commonly governing the flotation and this information will help them understand why the vessels float at all; the information provided in this opening section will help in forming the very basic level of knowledge required to complete subject training program. It is followed by the sections addressing the form coefficients of the ship's hull, TPC, Load Lines, basic introduction to the transverse stability, conditions of stability, effect of the free surface on stability, centre of gravity, list and trim, centre of buoyancy, GZ curves and suspended weights. The remaining sections of the book are dealing with the stability criteria, wall-sided formula, inclining test, ice acceleration, wind heeling, curves of statical stability etc. Some of the practical problems of ship loading have also been covered, together with the international regulations, e.g. IMO Grain Code. At the very end of the book there is an illustrative example of the Stability Information & Tank Sounding Book that can be used for ready and easy reference.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3223 | | Comments (0)

Examination of the Intact Stability and the Seakeeping Behaviour of Container Vessels withing the Ballast Condition

   Some ten years back the world economic crisis has resulted in a significant reduction in the number of transported containers because of the decreased overall amount of transported cargo. As a result of this, so many container carriers have been laid up or had to operate with a relatively small amount of cargo. In such loading condition a stability of the container ships is very high. In a majority of the cases the VCG, i.e. vertical centre of gravity of the ships is located below the coordinate of the lightship condition, and this happens because of the huge amounts of ballast water in the tanks located in the double bottom and wings plus very small amounts of cargo situated at the bottoms of the cargo holds. We required large amounts of ballast water to get the ship's hull and propulsion arrangements immersed and also to limit the longitudinal bending moment within the structure of the hull. In the classic loading condition higher amounts of cargo require less amounts of ballast and in these cases the stability is less. Under the circumstances described within the present publication, some accidents have occurred to container ships in the recent past. Subject accidents caused damage to the vessels and heavily injured (and even killed) several crew members who were thrown through the ship's bridge because of the very high transverse accelerations due to the heavy rolling...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1455 | | Comments (0)

Development of Threshold Values for a Minimum Stability Criterion Based on Full Scale Accidents

   In previous research works an intact stability criterion has been developing aiming at determination of the sufficient intact stability of a vessel in a heavy weather condition. The aim of that criterion was the establishing of the minimum stability level that would ensure that the risk of capsizing that remains is as low as it is reasonably practical. Subject criterion results in the calculation of the index value. To make this criterion applicable from the practice point of view we will need to define the threshold values for this index in order to distinguish between unsafe and safe vessels/conditions and establishing the minimum safety level in heavy weather. To set the threshold value for ISEI, standing for the insufficient stability event index), the authors of this volume have conducted the investigation of several events of the full-scale capsizing together with the numerical computational methods and procedures. Subject procedures and methods are mainly based on the computation of non-linear rolling motions of the vessel. Such methods/procedures have been under development in the course of the last decades with the intention of their authors to conduct the analysis of the full scope events of capsizing for authorities of Germany. The associated computations could be used to determine the required threshold values for the dynamic intact stability criterion...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1149 | | Comments (0)

A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships

   One of the main objectives of the present document is to develop a fast and stable plus reasonably accurate method of numerical simulation in order to revisit and predict the flooding scenarios. The author, Henrin Dankowski, has performed a good professional comparison with the results obtained in the course of the standard benchmark tests and repeated investigation of three accidents, namely the Estonia, the Heraklion and the European Gateway, for validation purpose. The aim of the method presented in this volume was to fill the gap that exists there between relatively simple evaluations of ship stability and more complex and time consuming methods of simulation of the seakeeping. Subject method has been implemented in the software environment E4 specifically developed for ship design. Subject environment is providing users with the direct access to the complete vessel data model and to the computational algorithms that have already been implemented. Calculations of the damage stability of a vessel at early stages of the design are considered essential indication of the vessel's safety level to withstanding the water ingress. Several accidents that have occurred in the past are demonstrating how important it is to consider the intermediate stages of flooding process and not only looking at the resulting final stage.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1159 | | Comments (0)

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