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Development of Second Generation Intact Stability Criteria

   Naval Surface Warfare Center. Hydromechanics Department Report. Introduction - context and contents; Vulnerability criteria for parametric roll, to pure loss of stability, for dead ship conditions and for broaching-to and surf-riding; Framework for direct stability assessment; Sample ship population; Conclusions; References. Approved for public release.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1157 | | Comments (0)

Examination of the Intact Stability and the Seakeeping Behaviour of Container Vessels withing the Ballast Condition

   In the years 2008/2009 the world economic crisis caused a reduction in the number of transported TEU, due to a significant decrease in transported goods. Consequently a great number of container vessels had been laid up or were forced to operate with a small amount of cargo on board. In this loading condition container vessels have a very high stability. In many cases their vertical center of gravity is even located below the lightship condition's coordinate. This is due to large amounts of ballast water in wing and double bottom tanks as well as no or only a small amount of cargo located at cargo hold bottom. The high amount of ballast water is needed to obtain an adequate hull and propeller immersion as well as a limitation of the longitudinal bending moments within the hull structure. In the typical loading conditions with higher amounts of cargo, less ballast water is needed ami the stability is lower. Under the described circumstances, several accidents have happened to container vessels during the last years. The accidents caused not only severe damages on ships but also heavily injured ami even killed crew members. They have been thrown through the bridge due to high transversal accelerations caused by heavy roll motions of the ship. This highlights, that modern container ship designs face some problems concerning insufficient seakeeping behavior. Since several accidents have happened to ships sailing under German flag, the BSU analyzed them by default. For three of the accidents, the seakeeping behavior has been examined in detail by order of the BSU at the Institute of Ship Design and Ship Safety at the Hamurg University of Technology (TUHH). This thesis shall examine the seakeeping behavior of several typical container vessels in equivalent environmental conditions.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1360 | | Comments (0)

Development of Threshold Values for a Minimum Stability Criterion Based on Full Scale Accidents

   In previous researches an intact stability criterion was developed which aims at the determination of sufficient intact stability of a ship in heavy weather. The aim of this dynamic intact stability criterion was to establish a minimum level of stability which should ensure that the remaining capsizing risk in heavy wether shall be as low as reasonably possible. The proposed criterion results in the computation of an index value. To make the criterion practically applicable, threshold values need to be defined for this index to distinguish between safe and unsafe ships or conditions on the one hand and to establish a required minimum level of safety in heavy weather on the other. To establish such a threshold value for the ISEI, we have investigated several full scale capsizing events with appropriate numerical methods and procedures. These methods or procedures are based on the direct computation of the non linear roll motions of the ship in time domain in a natural seaway. Such kind of methods or procedures have been developed during several decades with the special intention to analyze full scale capsizing events for German authorities. If these methods or procedures we have used in our analysis were found to give a reliable prediction of the ship's behaviour in the accident condition, it was then assumed that these methods or procedures will also deliver reliable results in other conditions (which must still be covered by the mathematical formulation of the problem and the related assumptions). This results in the possibility to analyze many situations that might be potentially as dangerous for the ship as the accident condition. Such kind of computations can be used to find the required threshold values for our dynamic intact stability criterion. An accident is an event which definitively proved that the stability condition was dangerous. Therefore, given that our numerical methods deliver the correct answer to the accident situation, then we can assume that the same type of computations for other conditions will give also a reliable answer. If we now use these methods to determine the ISEI- value for a loading condition which has been identified to be unsafe, then we can establish a relationship of the ISEI-value and stability conditions which are not acceptable. Further, we must not neglect the fact that over decades in different countries, a lot of useful knowledge has been generated which resulted in many types of stability criteria. Based on the individual kowledge of the time when such criteria were developed, and also based on the ship types that did exist in those times, these stability criteria represent a sufficient and practical level of safety for those ship types.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1065 | | Comments (0)

A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships

   The main objective of this thesis is the development of a fast, stable and reasonably accurate numerical simulation method to predict and revisit flooding scenarios in the time domain. A comparison with the results of a standard benchmark model test and the re-investigation of the EUROPEAN GATEWAY, the HERAKUON and the ESTONIA accidents arc performed for validation purposes. The aim of the presented method is to fill the gap between simple hydrostatic stability evaluations and more sophisticated but time consuming sea-keeping simulation methods. The method is implemented in the ship design software environment E4, a first-principle ship design software used and developed at the Institute of Ship Design and Ship Safety of the Technical University of Hamburg together with partners from the German shipbuilding industry, among others the Flensburger Shipyard. This environment provides direct access to the complete ship data model and already implemented computational algorithms. Introduction; Theory and basic equations; Flooding of complex ship compartmentations; Violation with model test results; Accident investigations; Conclusion and outlook; Determination of Henry's constant; Derivation of the free outflow flux; Fill level averaging for free outflow.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 1069 | | Comments (0)

Course Of Ships Stability and Trim

   The objective of this training course presented by the Faculty of Navigation of Maritime University Constanta is to make easier for the students to get familiarized with the basics of the naval architecture. The reader will find useful information in this book covering such areas of naval architecture and stability science as form coefficients, TCM, ship load lines, COG and COB, transverse statical stability and conditions of stability, initial transverse metacentre, effect of free surface and suspended weights, list and trim, wall-sided formula, inclining test, practical usage of the information to solve ship loading problems, and many more.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3020 | | Comments (0)

Ship Resistance and Propulsion

 

   Introduction; Propulsive power and basic components of ship resistance; Model-ship correlation and extrapolation; Restricted water breadth and depth; Resistance components measurement; Thrust and wake deduction; Numerical estimation of resistance; Ship resistance design data; Propulsor types and propeller characteristics; Hull form design; Powering process; Numerical methods for propeller analysis; Propulsor design data; Applications; Background physics; Derivation of Eggers formula for wave resistance; Tabulations of resistance and propulsor design data.

 

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 4504 | | Comments (0)

Marine Hydrodynamics

   The applications of hydrodynamics to naval architecture and ocean engineering have expanded dramatically in recent years. Ship design has been related increasingly to the results of scientific research, and a new field of ocean engineering has emerged from the utilization of offshore resources. The number of technical symposia and journals has increased in proportion to this expansion, but the publication of textbooks has not kept pace. This volume has been prepared to satisfy the need for a textbook on the applications of hydrodynamics to marine problems. These pages have evolved from lecture notes prepared for a first-year graduate subject in the Department of Ocean Engineering at MIT, and used subsequently for undergraduate and graduate courses at several other universities. Most of the students involved have taken an introductory course in fluid mechanics, but the necessary fundamentals are presented in a self-contained manner. A knowledge of advanced calculus is assumed, including vector analysis and complex-variable theory.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3233 | | Comments (0)

Ship Stability - Notes and Examples   This publication on naval architecture will be of particular use to helpful to ship Masters as well as Mates and Engineering Officers preparing for SQA/MSA examinations. It will also help the students of Naval Architecture and Ship Technology on ONC, HND, HNC courses, and first years on undergraduate degree courses. The book may be used as a reference aid to ship's crew and shorebased staff dealing with ship handling. The main objective of the book is to assist students with passing exams in Ship Stability by presenting as many as 66 worked examples together with supplementary 50 exercise examples with final answers only...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 5235 | | Comments (0)

Ship Stability by DOKMAR
   This publication is the one subsequent to the extremely successful "Ship Knowledge" encyclopedia presented by the same team of authors led by Klaas van Dokkum. Thanks to the development of the computer technology and software, the authors are now able to present their material in completely new form with the approach differing from one used in all other stability textbooks. The chapters included are - General; Principal dimensions; Transverse stability; Longitudinal stability; Various topics; Special types of ships; Hydrostatic particulars. We all know very well how important the stability matter is for safe navigation and cargo handling. Lack of proper knowledge will inevitably result in risks for the ships, people on board, and environment.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 5690 | | Comments (0)

Hydrodynamics Of Ship Propellers
   All extensive, highly mathematical literature exists dealing with fluid-mechanical aspects of ship propellers. Invariably, the mathematical developments are only outlined, impeding easy comprehension even by knowledgeable readers. Our aim is to elucidate the mathematical theory in much greater detail than is generally available in extant papers. In this context, the first three chapters are provided as aids for those who have not had extensive practice in the application of classical hydrodynamical theory to flows induced in fluids by the motions of bodies. The fluid of interest is water which is taken to be incompressible and inviscid. Modifications arising from viscosity are described in a later chapter through reference to experimental observations. This review begins with the derivation of the concept of continuity or conservation of mass at all points in sourceless flow and proceeds to the development of the Euler equations of motion. In the restricted but important class of irrotational motions (zero vorticity) Laplace's equation for the velocity potential is obtained. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to derivations of fundamental solutions of Laplace's equation in two and three dimensions.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 2694 | | Comments (0)

Ship Hydrostatics and Stability 2nd Edition
   Six years have passed since the issue of the enlarged reprint of the book. New intact and damage stability regulations have been adopted in the meantime, mainly by IMO, but also by the German Navy. While in the past the regulations were prescriptive and based on deterministic models, the new orientation turns towards goal-based and risk-assessment approaches. New ship forms increased the vulnerability to parametric roll and the occurrence of large roll angles and loss of containers have been frequently reported. Extensive research is carried on for a better understanding of this phenomenon, as well as of not-yet fully understood capsizing modes, such as dead ship condition, pure loss of stability and broaching-to. One aim of the research is to develop so-called second-generation criteria of stability. As it is recognized now that stability depends not only on the design of ships, but also on their loading and operation, as well as on environmental conditions, another aim of the research, and of IMO, is to issue guidance documentation for ship masters. The old deterministic approach to damage calculations has been replaced in large part by the probabilistic approach. Nevertheless, as the old mariners' saying states, 'There is always stormy weather ahead.' the accident of the cruise liner Costa Concordia, in 2012, will trigger new changes as it has unveiled new challenges for Naval Architects and experts in maritime regulations.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3920 | | Comments (0)

Draught Survey - A Guide to Good Practice
   The present guide has been designed to help Masters and Marine Surveyors all over the world ensure that draught surveys are performed as accurately as possible in the prevailing conditions. The publication also recommends a number of formulas and procedures for nearly every circumstance that can be encountered. The authors of the book have included the UN/ECE Draught Survey Forms in order to help to achieve standardization throughout the whole industry.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 5004 | | Comments (0)

LOAD AND GLOBAL RESPONSE OF SHIPS
   The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primarily written as a textbook for students with an introductory background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 4232 | | Comments (0)


   Numerous disasters which happened in the recent several years caused a significant increase of interest in the problems of safe operations in extreme weather conditions, in particular, in ship capsizing.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3361 | | Comments (0)

theoretical naval architecture
   The rare edition of the Theoretical Naval Architecture by Edward L. Attwood (reprint of first 1899 edition), book digitized by Google.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 5127 | | Comments (1)

a treatise on naval architecture
 
   This book will be of great use for those who decide to be the naval architect. The science of the naval architecture itself is clearly explained. All chief problems that the science of naval architecture treats have been addressed. The undertakings with which the naval architecture must cope, are stated therein. It must be emphasized that the authors treat the naval architecture as the science, and the ship-building as the art.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3748 | | Comments (0)

damage stability of the small vessel
 

   The safety of any vessel is of paramount importance to vessel designers and operators and to the regulatory bodies. For this reason, it is mandatory requirement for the vessel designers to submit stability booklet to the regulatory bodies such as classification society and marine department before the construction begines. Stability is generally defined as the ability of the vessel to return to the upright position whenever it heels to one side either by internal or external forces.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3649 | | Comments (0)

ship collision damage
 
   The overall goal of this thesis is to develop rational procedures for analysis of ship collisions, addressing all types of ships and damage scenarios. The procedure ends up giving methods for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses of damages to vessels. The vessels of today have a built-in passive safety based mainly on the damage stability regulations, which either build on traditional deterministic methods or on the more modern probabilistic approach. In the usual deterministic procedure, all relevant one- or two-compartment damages must be analysed in order to verify compliance with the requirements in the regulations. This may be reasonable for ships with a standard compartmentation; however, this may lead to either too unsafe/conservative ship designs. The way out of this dilemma may be the probabilistic approach, where all possible damages are weighed and considered with regard to survivability.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 3685 | | Comments (2)

introduction to naval architecture

   Naval architecture is a fascinating and demanding discipline. It is fascinating because of the variety of floating structures and the many compromises necessary to achieve the most effective product. It is demanding because a ship is a very large capital investment and because of the need to protect the people on board and the marine environment.

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 7428 | | Comments (0)

Ship Hydrostatics and Stability

   The subjects treated in this book are the basis of the profession called Naval Architecture. The term Naval Architecture comes from the titles of books published in the seventeenth century. For a Ions time, the oldest such book we were aware of was Joseph Furtttnbach's Architectura Navalis published in Frankfurt in 1629. The bibliographical data of a beautiful reproduction are included in the references listed at the end of this book. Close to 1965 an older Portuguese manuscript was rediscovered in Madrid, in the Library of the Royal Academy of Histoiy. The work is due to Joao Baptista Lavanha and is known as Livro Primeiro da Architecture Naval, that is "First book on Naval Architecture".

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 7213 | | Comments (1)

basic ship theory
 
   In their young days the authors performed the calculations outlined in this work manually aided only by slide rule, and, luxuriously, calculators. The arduous nature of such endeavours detracted from the creative aspects and affected the enjoyment of designing ships. Today, while it would be possible, such prolonged calculation is unthinkable because the chores have been removed to the care of the computer, which has greatly enriched the design process by giving time for reflection, trial and innovation, allowing the effects of changes to be examined rapidly.
Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 6559 | | Comments (0)

Practical Ship Hydrodynamics

   The prediction of ship hydrodynamic performance can be broken down into the general areas of resistance and propulsion, seakeeping, and manoeuvring. Propeller flows and propeller design can be seen as a subtopic of resistance and propulsion, but it is so important and features special techniques that it is treated as a separate topic in its own right...

Category: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE | Views: 5690 | | Comments (0)

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