Offshore Engineering


The intention of the author of this volume was to provide a good and extensive coverage of the essential offshore mechanics concepts with due attention paid to the newly introduced applications of the theory including, but not limited, to the different offshore installations, wind farms, bridges, and many others.

All critical areas of the design and analysis of the commonly used systems and structures have been addressed, providing the really fundamental information for the engineers engaged in the offshore industry. Note that both traditional and new methods have been covered, and different numerical techniques have been dealt with, such as the FEM and CFD. There are many examples and exercises included to track your progress.

The volume can be recommended to the offshore engineering students at higher levels, as well as the professional offshore engineers. All possible offshore environmental conditions have been examined, together with the foundation and mooring analysis, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic analysis, etc. in shore, the number of topics covered by the author makes this title definitely the best choice for the offshore engineering fellows who will benefit from its content.

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This is a very compact but truly brilliant textbook and a genuine treasure for those making their first steps in the offshore engineering industry. Prepared and released by the specialists of one of the world leaders in the field of offshore construction, the booklet will provide the newcomers with the concise yet absolutely useful information covering all important aspects of the jack up construction and giving them literally everything they would need to know before they start digging deeper.

As the title implies, the content is focusing on the self-elevating, or jack up mobile offshore drilling units. The introductory chapter gives the very essentials and is followed by the chapter on the basic components of any jack up unit together with the relevant functions. After that, the readers will proceed to the configuration of the unit, including the guides, parts of the rig elevating system, legs, footings and others.

The operation modes have been covered in a separate chapter with the focus made on the transit and preloading, working in elevated condition, full air gap operations etc. The remaining chapters of the publication are dealing with the classification requirements applicable to this type of rig, design considerations, and unit sensitivities.

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Sulphide Stress Cracking

When drilling through H2S environments, sulfide stress cracking SSC – a form of hydrogen embrittlement – is a frequent cause of drill stem failure. Both stress and the absorption of hydrogen in the presence of sulfide are involved in this type of failure.

Atomic hydrogen, the smallest of atoms, is a product of most corrosion reactions. It can be absorbed by and diffused through steel and other metals. Normally, the hydrogen atoms quickly combine to form molecular hydrogen, which is too large to be absorbed by the metal and bubbles off as gas. In the presence of sulfide, however, the hydrogen remains in the atomic form for a considerably longer time and therefore has a greater probability of being absorbed by the pipe. After being absorbed, the hydrogen tends to accumulate in the area of maximum stress and, when a critical concentration is reached, a small crack forms. The hydrogen accumulates at the top of the crack and the crack grows. The process continues until the remaining metal cannot sustain the applied load and a sudden brittle fracture occurs.

The degree of this effect on a piece of steel is determined by the concentration of hydrogen, the strength of the steel, applied stress on the steel, and the time of exposure:

Strength of the steel – generally, the higher the strength of the steel, the greater is its susceptibility to SSC. The lowest strength drill pipe capable of withstanding the required drilling conditions should be used.

Total tensile load on the steel – the higher the total tensile load on the pipe, the greater is the possibility of failure by SSC. Each grade of steel has a critical, or threshold, stress below which SSC will not occur; however, the higher the grade, the lower the threshold stress.

Amount of atomic hydrogen and H2S – the higher the amount of atomic hydrogen and H2S present, the shorter the time before failure.

Time – it is required for atomic hydrogen to be absorbed and diffused in the steel to the critical concentration required for a crack to begin and failure to occur. By controlling the factors in the previous three listings, the time before which failure occurs may be sufficiently lengthened to permit the use of marginally susceptible steels for a short duration.

Temperature – the severity of SSC is greatest in normal atmospheric temperatures; it decreases as temperature increases. Operating at temperatures in excess of 135 F allows marginally susceptible materials to be used in potentially embrittling environments. The greater the hardness of the material, the higher the required safe operating temperature. Drillers must be careful, however, because SSC failure may occur when the material returns to normal temperature after it is removed from the hole.

In order to minimize the risk of SSC in water-based drilling fluids, drillers should control the drilling fluid pH. When practical, given other functions of the drilling fluid, the driller should maintain a pH of 10 or higher. In drill strings containing aluminum drill pipe, the pH should not exceed 10.5 because aluminum pipe tends to corrode more than steel at high pH level. They should also limit gas-cutting and formation fluid invasion of the wellbore by maintaining proper drilling fluid weight. Hydrogen sulfide invades the wellbore from the formation being drilled.

The drillers should also chemically treat the drilling fluid for H2S inflows from formations, preferably prior to encountering the sulfide, and use the lowest-strength drill pipe capable of withstanding the required drilling conditions, use ultimate care in tripping out the hole after exposure to an H2S environment and avoid sudden shocks and high load.

It is also recommended to remove the absorbed hydrogen from the pipe after exposure to an H2S environment by aging the pipe in open air for several days to several weeks, depending on the exposure conditions, or bake it at 400-600 F for several hours. Note that the plastic-coated drill pipe should not be heated above 400 F.

Finally, the drillers should limit drill stem testing in H2S environments to as brief a period as possible, using operating procedures such as using H2S inhibitors that will minimize exposures to SSC conditions.

Corrosion and SSC can be minimized by the use of oil-based drilling muds. Corrosion does not occur if metal is completely enveloped by an oil environment that is electrically nonconductive. Therefore, under drilling conditions that cause serious problems of corrosion damage, erosion-corrosion, or corrosion fatigue, drill stem life can be greatly extended by using an oil mud.

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A new release of maybe the best principle primer of the offshore industry. The present publication has not been originally intended to serve as a definitive manual, it would rather be useful as the overall reference source providing the general technical introduction to the offshore engineering which is quite a complex object. The author's aim was to provide readers with a full coverage of the important aspects of the offshore industry presented in easily understandable terms; his efforts have made this title popular and appreciated by both newcomers to the offshore industry and the experiences practicing engineers.

The content of the publication starts with the general information about the offshore structures and vessels. According to the numerous feedbacks, this title shall be treated as a very valuable and timely addition to any specialist's library. The author has provided superb and lucidly clear technical explanations of the key aspects of the disciplines involved and made the book rick of essential information easily accessible to the readers regardless of their background and experience in the field.

The offshore engineers of today are required to perform a huge number of different tasks; this book shall definitely be on his shelf for ready and quick reference. It will be particularly valuable to the new recruits to the offshore industry and equally appreciated by the experienced specialists willing to refresh their technical knowledge...

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The content of this excellent publication is primarily intended for three groups of readers. The first group is made by the students and professors in the field of structural and ocean engineering, while the second group consists of practicing engineers and scientists in academic institutions, government laboratories, and industries involved in research on offshore installations, especially fluid-structure-soil interactions.

Finally, the third group of readers includes practicing professional engineers who consider conceptual designs and need to employ dynamic analysis in order to perform correct evaluation of the facilities constructed offshore. The material contained in the pages of this volume was originally worked out by the three contributors and intended to be used for short training courses commonly attended by engineering seniors and graduate students.

However, the volume will also be very useful when used as a reference source and for self-study. The coverage of the different aspects of dynamics is quite impressive and the information is presented in the way making it very easy to understand, this is what made the publication popular among different groups of readers.

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The best available reference book covering literally all of the risers and pipeline design. The content of this latest release of the title is duly updated with the recent technical advances in this field, reflecting the huge professional experience of the author and addressing the truly critical issues of environment protection touching the relevant economical issues.

The pipelines commonly utilized for the transfer of hydrocarbons are deservedly considered the safest and also the most reliable way of exploitation of the valuable resources that are below the surfaces of the oceans. The design of the risers and pipelines is commonly looked at as quite a new technique that continues to develop; and the main final purpose of the subject developments is reduction of the associated costs plus the minimization of the environmental impact.

The author made a very good attempt trying to assimilate the basics of the various aspects of the applied mechanics of the offshore pipeline systems. His efforts have finally resulted in this remarkably useful publication representing the proven contemporary practices and all required technical knowledge to be of practical assistance to the persons planning to form a part of the industry.

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Both offshore and deepwater hydrocarbons production using the pipelines has already gained a truly huge momentum in the energy field in the past decades. It is considered quite common that the costs usually associated with the construction of the offshore pipelines are higher in comparison to the various drilling components.

The process of optimization of the offshore pipeline development processes is deservedly treated as being critically important topic and is a pre-requisite for the effective management in the relevant offshore operations. This informative title has been prepared primarily for the offshore engineers and management reps who are working on the offshore/deepwater pipelines. The author has not actually intended to duplicate the technical information that is readily available in the other publications.

The main content of the volume has gathered the professional experience of the author gained through many years he spent directly engaged in the design, installation, testing and operations of the offshore underwater pipelines. The main objective of the volume is to provide both management and engineers with the guidelines that would assist in achieving a cost-effective management of the development and operations of their deepwater and offshore pipelines. The volume is also recommended for use as a reference source for by all categories of readers...

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Any professional who has ever participated in the performance of a deepwater hyperbaric weld will certainly agree that the successful welded connection, repair, and attachment of two pieces of steel in a dry environment is still one of maybe the most ambitious and challenging project with which the diving industry of today is confronted. This book is aimed to provide all required technical guidance on various aspects of underwater welding.

It is a highly detailed and informative reference source offering an insight in the important technology applied in the design and further construction of the offshore platforms and pipelines. The content of the volume covers the welding processes that can commonly be adapted to the underwater environment, established maintenance and repair procedures proven effective, safety matters, info on diving options and associated equipment, and the AWS RP for the underwater welding.

The problems commonly encountered in underwater welding have also been dealt with and analyzed together with the most important factors that affect the welding metallurgy, and many other interesting issues that every underwater welder shall be well aware of.

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