Liquefied Gases Handling


One more compact training course for the people working on board of or involved in the design and construction of the vessels transporting liquefied natural gases, i.e. so-called LNG carriers. There are four major sections in the present course. The first section introduces learners to the membrane LNG concept, particularly the integrated cargo tanks with cryogenic liners.

Then the readers proceed to the pre-concept stage where the job flowchart is presented, followed with the areas to be concentrated on during the design of the subject vessels, including selection of the main dimension and propulsion type, layout of the cargo tanks, weight distribution, general hull scantling, etc. The next area covered in the booklet is the loading – here, the four sample loading cases are presented.

The power estimation has been paid attention. There are several other important aspects covered in the volume including, but not limited to the selection of the steel grades for the hull construction, thermal analysis and boil-off rate, scantling requirements and others. The document will be a great supplementary visual training tool for those in need for the general idea of the LNG transportation.

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The publication was prepared by the LNG shipping industry professional and officially released by the world respected Braemar Engineering. The intention of the author was to give the guidance to all people I need for the LNG specific information that could be applied when performing their day to day duties. The book provides general introduction and historical background, followed with the explanation of the commonly used terms and basics of the vessel design.

Then, the reader will find the information about the shipbuilding contracts, types of the ships and their development. The materials used for construction of the vessels have been covered in a separate section together with the strength calculations. The next chapter is devoted to the regulatory framework including the industry rules, regulations, international conventions, codes etc.

In fact, the book will give all knowledge about the LNG ship construction at the shipyard, and the list of topics covered by the author includes but is not limited to the shipyard layout and material testing, design features, ship surveys and sea trials, steel cutting, welding, drydocking, and so many other activities. This is a perfect one for those wanting to know a bit more about the LNG ships.

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The present recommendations were written in order to provide industry with the single document containing the guidelines relating to the manifolds and strainers installed on board vessels carrying LNG and LPG cargoes, with the objective to promote the improvement of the safety of the operations and their efficiency. They are also aimed at providing assistance to the persons engaged in arranging the facilities in the jetties.

The content of the publication was thoroughly reviewed by the leading ship operators, professional naval architects, shipbuilders and manufacturers of the relevant shipboard equipment. The instructions and guidance provided here will be useful to the LNG/LPG ship owners, planners, operators and other parties involved. The document opens with the introduction where tits scope and purpose are defined, followed by the description of the categories of the LNG and LPG ships.

The cargo manifold position is covered in the following chapter together with the associated requirements. The strainers have been discussed in the separate section of the book. Apart from that, the authors have also dealt with the protection of the marine environment from the spills originating from the cargo manifolds, lighting of the cargo manifold area, service lines and many other topics, up to the safety requirements.

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The documented is prepared in the form of presentation and will be good for people entering the industry. The author covers the important areas in detail, while keeping the amount of text to a minimum, concentrating on the visual aids such as the illustrations and schemes. First of all, the basic information is given about the hydrocarbon industry and the role played by LNG.

Then, we proceed to the LNG chain and plant overview, and the offshore industry. There are slides devoted to the gasification process, composition of the natural gas, schematics of the gas treatment plant, as well as the typical liquid petroleum gas recovery in the baseload LNG plant, cascade cooling and the associated hazards.

The cryogenics has been dealt with, together with the domestic and industrial refrigeration, properties of the refrigerants, together with the technical aspects such as the insulation used, low temperature embrittlement of the materials, thermal stress, piping and pressure profile. The storage and transportation of the LNG are handles within the separate slides, and there are so many other interesting and important areas covered. The document can be used as a ready-to-use presentation when explaining the basics of the LNG.

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The materials contained in the pages of this compact yet informative report were provided by the Department of Energy of United States in cooperation with the NARUC, standing for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. The publication gives some introductory information that shall be known by anyone engaged in the LNG industry in any way, including, of course, the maritime transportation of the liquefied gases.

Nowadays, the natural gas plays a critically important role in the energy supply, significantly contributing in the national environmental and economic plans. As we know, the liquefaction process has been developed and widely implemented in order to allow for easier transportation of the natural gas. Without it, the gas would never get delivered to the destination ports.

The main emphasis in the document has been placed on the United States; however the technical information can easily be applied elsewhere. The authors explain the growing demand of the country in the natural gas, current status of its imports, components making up the LNG chain, essentials of the natural gas production and liquefaction; of course, the safety and security aspects have also been covered in detail.

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The natural gas are there in the rock reservoirs deep below the surface of the Earth and therefore under high pressure. They can exist being dissolved in the water or hydrocarbons, or in the free state. Same is the way they are produced from the geological formations. There are three quantities of the gases, namely their temperature, pressure and temperatures, and three major rules governing their behavior, i.e. Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law, and Gay-Lussac’s Law.

The liquid natural gas trade chain starts with the exploration and production, treatment and liquefaction process, followed by its transportation, and concluded with the storage at final location and regasification. This compact document provides all information that everyone involved in maritime transportation of the LNG should be aware of in order to perform his or her duties in a safe manner.

To do that, they are definitely in need of having a good knowledge of the nature of gases and their technical characteristics, since the failure to know and understand same will eventually result in the unsafe working practice on board, leading to the dangerous and often even catastrophic consequences to the humans on board, vessel and the environment.

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The LPG carriers are ships intended for marine transportation of the gases in the liquid form of substance which would otherwise be a gas, should the ambient conditions be normal (temperature and atmospheric pressure). The subject gases can be toxic, flammable or both toxic and flammable, so they shall be paid ultimate attention and dealt with caution.

In addition to their toxicity and flammability, the main hazards associated with the carriage of the liquid gases are normally the vapor release and the effect that the low temperatures have on the ship structure and personnel on board. This introductory document was prepared by the professional and experienced captain willing to share his practical experience. It is absolutely recommended to all crew members working on board vessels carrying such cargoes.

Starting with the general information about the characteristics of the liquid gases based on the API approach, the publication then tells you about the relevant regulatory framework, the IGC Code in the first turn. All classes of the liquid gas carriers have been covered in the document, with the attention paid to the advantages and disadvantages of each class of vessels. Numerous photographs supplement the text wherever it is required to provide visual aids.

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The present document was developed and officially released by SIGTTO in order to offer readers, including the operators and designers of the vessels engages in marine transportation of the liquid natural gases, the professional guidelines on the general requirements that are applicable. Note that we also have the similar publication dealing with selection of the valves for the LPG, or liquid petroleum gas, application.

The valves used in such services will be designed for the operating temperature range from 80 to minus 180 degrees Celsius. The content of the document will be of particular use for the storage of the LNG products and their transportation; however, it will be equally useful to the representatives of the other industries involving LNG. There are specific requirements applying to the design of the valves to make sure that they will work safely and efficiently in the cryogenic systems.

The authors of the publication intended to explain the essentials of the design and subsequent testing of the valves for cryogenic applications, with the technical requirements paid due attention. All of the major and commonly referred standards and technical codes have been listed at the end of the document. Though very compact, the booklet will still be of great assistance.

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