This latest edition of the textbook published by McGuire and White was published by Witherby in 2000 and covers following important aspects of the liquefied gases transportation and handling, as properties and basic information on liquefied gases, ship equipment and instrumentation, principles of gas carrier design, terminal equipment and instrumentation, the ship-shore interface, cargo measuring and control, cargo handling operations, emergency procedures and personal health-and-safety issues.
This publication has been initially established as the standard guide covering the operational side of the shipping industry; the book should be treated as the completely independent companion that is to be used in the course of the professional training for the operational qualifications. As it was a case with two previous editions of the textbook, it is dealing with the issues related to the safe handling of liquefied gases in bulk and emphasized the importance of proper understanding of physical characteristics of such cargoes with regard to the practical operation of the associated equipment on board vessels and at terminals. It is primarily intended to be used by the ship officers and other people bearing responsibility for the operations.
The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed.
The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation.
Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...
Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems.
As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others.
This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.
An excellent publication released by the world respected SIGTTO organization. As it is clear from the title, the content of the volume is intended to provide necessary information and instructions on the fire hazard management on board ships transporting liquefied gases. The authors have managed to bring together, in one informative volume, the main principles of preventing and fighting the fires associated with liquefied gas.
The volume is mainly aimed at the operational staff including ship officers and plant supervisors since they are directly engaged in the handling of the liquefied gases that are very flammable. However, we would highly recommend it to the fire officers as well as to the emergency planners - they will be provided with a good professional insight into both technical design and practical operation of the liquefied gas installations together with all equipment considered fundamental for safe and efficient operation of those installations.
Numerous real life case histories make the content of the publication even more readable. In short, we can say that the authors have managed to cover absolutely all important aspects of the topic, and this approach has gained worldwide popularity to their work which is deservedly treated as one of the best books on the subject. The analysis of the famous incidents, such as the propylene fire on board Val Rosandra and attack on Gas Fountain, and others.
The known and researched world gas reserves exceed those of oil. However, for so many years the gas has not attracted too much interest. It was rather considered a sort of hindrance by the people engaged in the oil recovery. The associated gas used to be flared. The wells containing no oil but a plenty of gas used to be totally ignored. The first practical attempts for gas production were made at the beginning of the last century.
People had finally recognized the potential of gas reserves to change the way of their living. The development of gas reserves has eventually led to the need for its transportation which, noting its flammable nature, should be carried out in a safest way. The present publication provides a good review of the marine LNG transportation as well as of the conditions that prevail today.
Without going too deep into technical details of the transportation, the author gives a nice overview of all important aspects including the characteristics of the vessels engaged in transportation, current regulations and rules governing it, gas storage ashore and of course safety considerations. The readers will find valuable information about everything associated with marine transportation of gas from both safety, technical and commercial perspectives.
The present document prepared by the specialists of one of the most authoritative entities in the world of maritime shipping has been released with the specific aim to provide required technical guidance to the crew members of the vessels engaged in marine transportation of the natural liquefied gas. The material contained in the book draws on the remarkable experience of the authors, all of them being recognized members and experts of the gas industry.
Their collaboration has eventually resulted in this guidebook explaining the established best practices for the proper management of the shipping operations in the ports. The authors have also illuminated the profile of the risks commonly associated with the gas operations - this information will be useful to the persons administering the ports and providing the essential services.
The publication shall definitely be treated as a very essential guidance for all people dealing with the design, construction and subsequent operation and maintenance of the LNG terminals in the ports as the information contained in its pages can be used when conducting the reassessment of the risks that are subject to frequent changes taking into account the nature of the operations.
This publication developed by the professionals of the SIGTTO organization was intended to advise the people engaged in the works on board gas carriers on the proper procedures relating to the technical maintenance of the PRVs, standing for the pressure relief valves, address various operation problems, possible faults and emergency closure.
The idea of the authors was to provide some general guidance to the crew members of the vessels - note that the volume is not expected to replace any of the instructions or manuals provided by the manufacturers of the equipment in question.
Opening with some introduction, the content of the volume covers the general requirements that are applicable to the PRVs including requirements to their design and installation on board. The types of the PRVs are addressed in detail, covering both spring operated and pilot operated pressure relief valves. The emergency closure of the PRVs is considered particularly important and is therefore dealt with in a separate chapter.
The publication also covers the in-service testing of the valves. Five appendices provide additional information including extracts from the IMO IGC Code, pressure levels, terminology and definitions used etc.
This presentation by SIGTTO applies to the valves installed on board liquid petroleum gas vessels, but it can provide guidance to such valves on LPG terminals, as well. It is intended to serve as a supplemental guide to be used together with the relevant standards and codes for LPG valves and shall not override them.
In this book such an important issues as valve design, specific design consideration for ESD (emergency shutdown) valves, valve testing, material requirements and codes and standards, have been addressed. The publication is mostly intended to provide necessary technical guidance to the designers and/or operators on the applicable general requirements for valves for LPG service, designed for an operating temperature ranging between -55 and +80 degrees Celsius.
Though the document was specifically developed to apply to LPG vessels, the provisions contained in it may be equally applied throughout the liquefied petroleum gas industry. Note, however, that this paper shall not override any national/international standards or codes. The appendix at the last part of the document provides considerations to be taken into account during the periods of construction and maintenance.