Liquefied Gases Handling


The present introductory course was developed with the intention of the authors to provide the newcomers with the essential information and guidance on the gas tankers. It starts with the general information about the chemical and physical characteristics of the different gases, as well as the hazards associated with their marine transportation.

There is a separate section in the volume devoted to the safety consideration, deservedly considered to be of the utmost importance and therefore must-read to every single crew member. The cargo and gas detection tools have been discussed, as well, together with the cargo calculations.

The readers will get to know about the basic cargo operations that usually take place on board gas tankers. Moreover, they will also get the information about the documentation accompanying every single operation, since they are expected to know and understand the workflow.

We know that the transportation of the liquid cargo may have detrimental effect on the ship stability and trim due to the free surface etc. that is why there is a chapter on this. In addition, the emergency procedures have been explained in detail, including the operation of the shipboard fixed fire extinguishing system.

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The present document was released to provide the shipping industry with the professional recommendations relating to the arrangement and strength of the manifolds installed on the modern gas carriers, together with the associated fittings. The recommendations contained in this volume have been developed for both LPG and LNG, i.e. liquefied petroleum and natural gases, respectively.

There are seven chapters in this volume, starting with the introduction to the scope of the document and size categories, and followed by the positioning on the manifolds on both types of carriers. The protection from the spillage of cargo has been paid particular attention, including requirements to the height of the coaming, drainage, water curtain etc.

Then there are two chapters dealing with the design, specification and fittings of the manifolds, where you will have information about the carbon and stainless steel manifolds, distance pieces and flanges, spool pieces, reducers etc. you will need to be aware of the additional requirements and you can find them in the sixth chapter, while the closing one is devoted to the bunkering manifolds. There is also a good glossary provided for those not too familiar with the terminology used.

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This is a very informative volume developed and released by SIGTTO, one of the most authoritative organizations in the modern maritime shipping world. It opens with some general introduction. Then there is information about the early days of the LPG industry, where the readers will get to know about the trial voyages of the “Methane Pioneer” back in 1959, the “Methane Princess” and “Progress” considered truly exceptional pieces of engineering of those times, cross-Mediterranean trades, containment systems etc.

After that, you will read about the pioneers of the industry, including the key innovators and motivators, shipboard cargo handling appliances, shipbuilding activities in China, South Korea and Japan, etc. The LPG carriers and trade activities are discussed in the next chapters together with the safety regime, including the role played by the SIGTTO in developing the safety record, contents of the IGC Code and its revisions, information about the LPG terminals and other aspects. After going through the info about the middle years and the new millennium, the readers will reach the today of the LPD marine transportation. In short, the document shall be read by all people willing to stay at the edge of the modern technology.

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This guidance was produced by SIGTTO to members' concerns about the some of the interpretations of the functional requirements for emergency shutdown systems; in particular, differences between the needs of the liquid natural gases industry and those of liquid petroleum gases industry. It was also aimed to encourage and promote the use of linked emergency shutdown systems at both LPG and LNG terminals, especially where cargo transfer rates are quite high or where they handle one of the cargoes stated in IGC Code 1993/Chapter 17.

However, this SIGTTO publication is not intended to contradict any international or national requirements or standards for operational practices at the liquefied gas ship-shore interface. One of the primary objectives of this guidance was to advise the operators/owners of gas carriers about the rollover-related issues. The rollover itself mainly refers to the quick release if the LNG vapor occurring when the layers of different densities of LNG are spontaneously mixed in a cargo or storage tank. While for the conventional onshore terminals all such issues are known and understood, for LNG vessels the associated circumstances are a bit unusual and have to be paid serious additional attention...

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The present document prepared by the specialists of one of the most authoritative entities in the world of maritime shipping has been released with the specific aim to provide required technical guidance to the crew members of the vessels engaged in marine transportation of the natural liquefied gas. The material contained in the book draws on the remarkable experience of the authors, all of them being recognized members and experts of the gas industry.

Their collaboration has eventually resulted in this guidebook explaining the established best practices for the proper management of the shipping operations in the ports. The authors have also illuminated the profile of the risks commonly associated with the gas operations - this information will be useful to the persons administering the ports and providing the essential services.

The publication shall definitely be treated as a very essential guidance for all people dealing with the design, construction and subsequent operation and maintenance of the LNG terminals in the ports as the information contained in its pages can be used when conducting the reassessment of the risks that are subject to frequent changes taking into account the nature of the operations.

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The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed.

The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation.

Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...

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This is the official SIGTTO publication covering one of the most important aspects of the marine transportation of the liquefied gases; their nature requires that same is carried out in closed containers, considering the temperatures and pressures involved. It is therefore critical to properly quantify the transported cargo and this, in turn, will require complex procedures and considerations.

Another item to consider and to add to the complexity is the number of different calculation procedures, each for the specific accuracy level and value. It is essential to have a thorough understanding of the differences between above stated procedure in order to clearly get the values of the loaded and discharged cargo. Recognizing the necessity for a good guidance on these matters, the SIGTTO organization developed and released this second edition of the monograph.

The contents of this book have been fully updated and revised by the recognized experts in the field. The info contained in the monograph will serve as a background to the people working in the shipping organizations, and whose day to day activities involve dealing with the LNG custody transfer. However, it will be equally interested and useful for self-education.

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Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems.

As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others.

This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.

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