The present document prepared by the specialists of one of the most authoritative entities in the world of maritime shipping has been released with the specific aim to provide required technical guidance to the crew members of the vessels engaged in marine transportation of the natural liquefied gas. The material contained in the book draws on the remarkable experience of the authors, all of them being recognized members and experts of the gas industry.
Their collaboration has eventually resulted in this guidebook explaining the established best practices for the proper management of the shipping operations in the ports. The authors have also illuminated the profile of the risks commonly associated with the gas operations - this information will be useful to the persons administering the ports and providing the essential services.
The publication shall definitely be treated as a very essential guidance for all people dealing with the design, construction and subsequent operation and maintenance of the LNG terminals in the ports as the information contained in its pages can be used when conducting the reassessment of the risks that are subject to frequent changes taking into account the nature of the operations.
The known and researched world gas reserves exceed those of oil. However, for so many years the gas has not attracted too much interest. It was rather considered a sort of hindrance by the people engaged in the oil recovery. The associated gas used to be flared. The wells containing no oil but a plenty of gas used to be totally ignored. The first practical attempts for gas production were made at the beginning of the last century.
People had finally recognized the potential of gas reserves to change the way of their living. The development of gas reserves has eventually led to the need for its transportation which, noting its flammable nature, should be carried out in a safest way. The present publication provides a good review of the marine LNG transportation as well as of the conditions that prevail today.
Without going too deep into technical details of the transportation, the author gives a nice overview of all important aspects including the characteristics of the vessels engaged in transportation, current regulations and rules governing it, gas storage ashore and of course safety considerations. The readers will find valuable information about everything associated with marine transportation of gas from both safety, technical and commercial perspectives.
An excellent publication released by the world respected SIGTTO organization. As it is clear from the title, the content of the volume is intended to provide necessary information and instructions on the fire hazard management on board ships transporting liquefied gases. The authors have managed to bring together, in one informative volume, the main principles of preventing and fighting the fires associated with liquefied gas.
The volume is mainly aimed at the operational staff including ship officers and plant supervisors since they are directly engaged in the handling of the liquefied gases that are very flammable. However, we would highly recommend it to the fire officers as well as to the emergency planners - they will be provided with a good professional insight into both technical design and practical operation of the liquefied gas installations together with all equipment considered fundamental for safe and efficient operation of those installations.
Numerous real life case histories make the content of the publication even more readable. In short, we can say that the authors have managed to cover absolutely all important aspects of the topic, and this approach has gained worldwide popularity to their work which is deservedly treated as one of the best books on the subject. The analysis of the famous incidents, such as the propylene fire on board Val Rosandra and attack on Gas Fountain, and others.
This latest edition of the textbook published by McGuire and White was published by Witherby in 2000 and covers following important aspects of the liquefied gases transportation and handling, as properties and basic information on liquefied gases, ship equipment and instrumentation, principles of gas carrier design, terminal equipment and instrumentation, the ship-shore interface, cargo measuring and control, cargo handling operations, emergency procedures and personal health-and-safety issues.
This publication has been initially established as the standard guide covering the operational side of the shipping industry; the book should be treated as the completely independent companion that is to be used in the course of the professional training for the operational qualifications. As it was a case with two previous editions of the textbook, it is dealing with the issues related to the safe handling of liquefied gases in bulk and emphasized the importance of proper understanding of physical characteristics of such cargoes with regard to the practical operation of the associated equipment on board vessels and at terminals. It is primarily intended to be used by the ship officers and other people bearing responsibility for the operations.
The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning.
The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry.
The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.
The main purpose of the present guide is to provide a thorough reference which might be useful to various port authorities as well as operating management of LNG carriers and terminals in reviewing or developing their planning in order to avoid the accidents or at lease reduce their possibility. The publication would also be quite helpful in controlling the possible consequences of such accidents happening within the port limits.
This second (revised) edition takes into account the STCW Convention and SOLAS IX as well as the ISM Code. It covers ships in transit and operation, ships alongside, public relations and periodic review. Note, however, that the present publication shall not be treated as a comprehensive technical manual on contingency planning since the authors have confined this document to the aspect directly relating to the carriage and handling of gases.
The circumstances influencing the contingency planning may vary from port to ports in the matters such as nautical/weather considerations, types of cargo being handled, authorities etc. When preparing this document, broader interpretation of the term "contingency planning" was taken, including considerations related to the accident prevention and control of possible consequences.
The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed.
The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation.
Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...
This guidance was produced by SIGTTO to members' concerns about the some of the interpretations of the functional requirements for emergency shutdown systems; in particular, differences between the needs of the liquid natural gases industry and those of liquid petroleum gases industry. It was also aimed to encourage and promote the use of linked emergency shutdown systems at both LPG and LNG terminals, especially where cargo transfer rates are quite high or where they handle one of the cargoes stated in IGC Code 1993/Chapter 17.
However, this SIGTTO publication is not intended to contradict any international or national requirements or standards for operational practices at the liquefied gas ship-shore interface. One of the primary objectives of this guidance was to advise the operators/owners of gas carriers about the rollover-related issues. The rollover itself mainly refers to the quick release if the LNG vapor occurring when the layers of different densities of LNG are spontaneously mixed in a cargo or storage tank. While for the conventional onshore terminals all such issues are known and understood, for LNG vessels the associated circumstances are a bit unusual and have to be paid serious additional attention...