This volume has actually been motivated by the very recent surge in the availability and density of Lagrangian measurements as well as latest math and methodological developments in the field of analysis of the relevant data in order to improve the characteristics of the circulation models and many applications to dispersion of various biological species. One of the main intentions of the present publication was to conduct a proper and thorough review of Lagrangian observations, as well as the applicable methods of assimilation and analysis in both biological and physical oceanography; it is also intended to present some of the brand new methods of subject analysis and assimilation of the data, plus applications of the stochastic models from the studies of biological dispersion. Some of the chapters of this book have been specifically prepared while others had been presented at various LAPCOD workshops. In fact, this work may be considered a very first of its kind due its core topic being the Lagrangian point of view applied to the studies of the transport phenomena in the oceanic flows. Anther interesting and valuable aspects of this volume is the multi-disciplinary nature plus the contributions provided by the theoreticians and experimentalists and other professionals from very diverse fields, from marine biology up to the mathematics.
The process of provision of improvement in the reliability of long-range forecasts of severe weather and floods, droughts and other natural disasters, is critically important to the livelihood of the mankind, especially of millions of humans who can be potentially affected by such events. The proper understanding and correct prediction of the ISV, standing for the intra-seasonal variability, is considered crucial to the improvement of the associated forecasts and also the reliability of the projects related to the climate changes through the corresponding climate models. This second edition of the volume has been significantly updated, numerous original chapters have been re-written while some new chapters have been added covering the new developments in the field of the ISV research. In the introduction to the initial edition of this classic volume, the authors have written about their goal to provide readers with the reference text on ISV with the intention to fill the existing gap between the climate predictions and weather forecasts. And in the present second release of the book the authors, William Lau and Duane Waliser, seek to further this serious goal. Absolutely recommended publication for any professional in meteorology and actually anyone with the interest in this field.
Another release of the Human Element bulletin, and this one is dedicated to the health and wellbeing of people who are working at sea. Since so many of the systems on board ships are dependant on human involvement to some extent, we need to consider this link as a potential frailty that requires to be under periodic monitoring and management. It is very important to keep the mariners healthy and happy since this will definitely result in the safe and commercially efficient of the vessel. In the fourth article of the MLC Convention it is emphasized that every seafarer is entitled to the right of working in a safe and secure working place complying with the applicable recognized safety standards, as well as to fair employment terms, decent conditions of living and working on board, protection of their health, and other forms of protection. It means that the owners and managers of the ships are obliged to provide their employees with secure and safe working place, and comply with the requirements of all relevant regulatory documents. This can be done through encouraging of the safety culture and security awareness, provision of adequate benefits to the employees, establish and maintain the working policy of openness and good communication, and everything else that is required. The present issue of Alert is supplemented with this short training video.
Suppose the ship was completely automatic - no seafarers required, suppose the engines maintain themselves - no people required, and suppose all the cargo did load and discharge itself - untouched by human hands... Unlikely? Well, of course, it is. Technology may be playing an increasing role in the running of the vessel, but as we all know, how safely and how efficiently the ship is run, is all about people - and so is this issue of Alert. The plight of some seafarers has already been made international headlight. Badly paid, sometimes not paid at all, poor food and accommodation, working on ships managed by people having little or no regard to health, safety and wellbeing. The MLC 2006 is described by many as a milestone for the international maritime industry. Often referred to as the "seafarers' bill of rights", it addresses the significant issues pf minimum working age, maximum working hours, along with accommodation, health protection, food and catering, medical care, welfare and also social security matters. The Convention is also addressing the current health concerns, for example the effects of vibration and noise on seafarers, and is intended to apply worldwide, be easily understandable, and easy to update and enforce. This video supplements the Alert 18 issue.
Here is the fifth edition of this modern and world popular book by Dennis Zill, whose remarkably comprehensive work has been already recognized by the students and specialists because of the deep overview of numerous mat topics that are required for the students who are in the process of planning their careers in various fields of engineering/sciences. One of the key features of this volume is the emphasis made by the author on the differential equations as math models and the discussion of the pitfalls and constructs of each of them. The publication is considered a full collection of the relevant topics usually covered within the engineering mathematics courses. The book has been designed max flexible in order to meet all needs of different course offerings that usually range from ordinary equations up to the vector calculus. This revised edition of the title offers its readers a completely re-arranged project section adding some clarity to the main course material; moreover, some new content has been added to the main text of the book, when compared to the previous edition. This is a very useful book to be used as a quick reference tool by the students in any field of engineering. One of the very well-known and highly recommended books on engineering mathematics.
The present volume was prepared by the team of recognized specialists in the field of marine science with the ultimate intention to provide readers with the review of the state of possessed knowledge of the marine reserves as well as protected areas plus evaluation of their utility with the purpose of conservation and promotion of the biological diversity, improvement of the fishery management, and protection of sea habitants. The publication has been arranged in nine separate chapter, the first one being purely introductory. The second chapter of the book provides the conservation goals, while the following one explains the basic principles of the conventional management as applied to the marine fisheries. The fourth and fifth chapters deal with the societal values of the marine reserves/marine protected areas, and provide modeling as well as empirical studies of the marine reserves. Remaining chapters of the volume address the design, monitoring, modeling and research matters, give some brief historical background and information on the evaluation of MPAs, standing for the marine protected areas, in the US. The last chapter of the book contains the recommendations to the readers, and conclusions. The list of acronyms is there at the end of the volume, together with the glossary of terms, biographies of the committee members, and other valuable supplementary info.
As it is quite clear from the title of this volume, it is dedicated to the problems, promise and products of marine biotechnology in the 21st century. In the content of the present publication the team of authors who compiled it, has integrated and summarized the relevant information that and been obtained in the course of two workshop. Subject information has served as a basis for provision of the recommendations related to the promising areas of research to be conducted in marine biotechnology. The biomedical applications have been emphasized within this book and numerous important topics related to the discovery and development of the drugs have been included. In addition to that, the content of the publication is covering such the important aspects as proteomic and genomic applications, bioengineering, biomaterials, associated public policy and relationships etc. The review of the present report has been conducted by the recognized experts chosen for their professional technical expertise and perspectives, following the procedures established by the Report Review Committee of NRC, and its purpose is to provide all interested parties with the critically valuable comments. The amount of the information chosen for inclusion into this collection will make this book very useful and interesting for all people involved in marine science.
More than a century ago, B. Helland-Nanses and I. Snadstrom and proposed a method of computing the ocean currents on the basis of the water density distribution. Later, this method became known as the dynamic method for computing elements of the ocean currents, or hydrological data analysis method. This is the indirect method and fully bases on the theoretical assumption that the coriolis force and horizontal pressure gradient are in equilibrium in the steady state below the mixed layer of the ocean surface. The velocities of the current are calculated by means of the dynamic method. The present volume is the author's attempt to properly justify the method referred to above, theoretically and also to shed some light on the nature of currents calculated/computed using this method. It also examines the importance of the depth of reference surface and the accuracy of the computations. In addition, the book contains the descriptions of the structure of the gradient component of a wind-driven current velocity. However, the author of the title does not attempt to provide a thorough treatise on the method in question, but is rather trying to analyze some of the important aspects of the theoretical principles of the dynamic method together with the possible practical applications, using the ocean currents theory.
The publication was released to present the ongoing trends in the scientific researches related to the underwater acoustic wave inverse/direct problems. We consider the "ocean-seabed" system an acoustic wave guide, and in fact this volume is the only one treating the inverse problems. The authors of the title treat the acoustic wave propagation for different seabed types and consider the direct/inverse problems in realistic environments of the ocean. They have emphasized the computation of the Green's functions and have added some completely new material relating to the poro-elastic and elastic types of seabed. They have also addressed numerous areas of the practical interest mainly relating to the underwater acoustic imaging, covering the ecological cleanup and surveys, means of protection of the open-water harbours, proper maintenance of the offshore oil-and-gas enterprises, together with other relevant and important areas of concern. It shall be treated as an excellent math treatise. The book will be very useful because of the information contained - note that the waveguide inversion problems are not actually addressed in too many reference books and this book is also intended to fill the gap in the information with this regard, with particular attention paid by the authors to the forward scattering problem.
Since the world ocean covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and has the average depth of almost four kilometers, it should not be too surprising that the exchanges occurring there between the atmosphere and the ocean exert quite significant influences on the climate of Earth. The great variety within the ocean's expanses shall also be taken into account, including large differences in temperatures and huge biological diversity that is brought about by chemical diversity in the same environment. The present publication has been compiled by a group of internationally recognized and experienced professionals in the field of marine chemistry, with the intention to offer readers a very authoritative and truly multi-disciplinary technical review of the subject topic. The content of the title also includes a thorough review of the existing challenges and opportunities connected with the development of the pharmaceutical from the sea water, together with the examination of pollution and contamination of the marine environment - this is actually considered one of the most serious threats. The book shall be used worldwide and will be of great use to both students and professionals, engaging their further interest and close attention to the topics addressed within the publication. It is really an essential reading for them due to the expert and concise review provided.
The energy of ocean waves and of the renewable energy resources provides quite small but still significant proportion of the future energy needs without adding to global warming and also pollution of the environment. The present concise and very practical reference book prepared by John Brook describes several alternative methods of application, and also sheds the light on the technical concepts standing behind the conversion of the waves energy; the author has also investigated the wave power activities all around the world. The volume presents the exploration of the potential of the energy that can be obtained from the ocean waves - historically, this source of energy is well known for its great destructive power and strength. However, as you will see from this book, this source of energy can and shall be converted into useful work. Of course, some of the methods of conversion are still under development but there is some significant progress and subject systems will most probably be introduced soon. The issue is that the cost of energy obtained using these methods, remains relatively high; however, they are expected to come down quite considerably, bearing in mind that the experience is growing. It is anticipated that this type of energy eventually replace or at least supplement significant portion of conventionally generated energy...
The publication contains the proceedings of the international conference dedicated to the marine pollution by oil. Man has always influenced the surrounding environment, but at the very beginning the traces of people's activities were almost not noticeable and the effects of those activities to the equilibrium of the eco-system were not serious at all. As soon as the human started to use the tools, people were able ti influence their surroundings in much more drastical way, and that is actually the time when the things started to go wrong. The environment condition we have today is the result of people's activities. The first section of the title is dealing with chemical/physical behavior of oil in marine environment and with the associated biological processes, while the second chapter addresses the effects of oil and its compounds on the eco-systems, populations and species. The third section of the volume provides readers with the results obtained during the monitoring of both biotic and abiotic compartments of marine eco-systems. And the fourth section is dedicated to the several specific cases of the risk management and analysis on the basis on existing scientific technical knowledge. Definitely recommended title for those willing to be up-to-date with all happenings in the field of marine science.
The world ocean covers more than seventy percent of the Earth's surface, so-called "the blue planet". More than ninety percent of the living space of the Earth is accumulated in the ocean waters and until half-billion years back, literally all forms of life existed there. The global health of our planet together with all its inhabitants seriously depends on the water cycling and nutrients and minerals carried by the water. The oceans of the world have always influenced the weather and climate patterns. The relationship between the sea and the human began in ancient times when lack of technology significantly limited people's ability to explore the ocean waters. There are many economically valuable resources that are acquired from the seas, and the scientists in the field of marine science and oceanography have also revealed the insight into the very origin of life to study the reproduction and development of the organisms and various geological processes. The term "marine biology" covers numerous sciences all relating to the sea, for example marine biology and oceanography, marine chemistry and others. The present title tells the readers about the prominent people who made the marine science, from Sir C. Wyville Thomson to Robert D. Ballard. In addition to the chapters dedicated to these people, there is also a glossary of terms.
This book written by famous scientist and professional astronomer J. B. Zirker is dedicated to the ocean waves, including tsunamis, stormy ocean waves and ripples, and the book is aimed at any interested persons including surfers and ocean scientists. The book is very hard to put down. It presents a very fascinating reading for them and is considered a great one for the oceanography classes, especially at undergraduate level. The author has provided an up-to-date and quite comprehensive account of the matters whose complexity is commonly very hardly appreciated by non-professionals in the field and non-scientists. The deep insights, comprehensive narratives and historic perspectives included to the publication do not contain any single equation and presence of graphics has been kept to a minimum, making the volume very reader-friendly and being the reason why the title has been recognized as a very remarkable achievement. We would say that this book may already be used as a standard textbook for the ocean as well as weather forecasters, scientists, plus climate modelers and students. The author has applied a very fresh look to the ocean waves and also provided the theory with numerous illustrations to make the content more accessible for everyone.
Today, we know that there is an incresingly high interest in the DOM, standing for the dissolved organic matter, and the reason is mostly because DOM plays one of the critically important roles in both global and oceanic cycling of carbon, which directly impacts weather. The primary goal of professionals in the fields of oceanography and marine biogeochemistry over the past decades was to properly understand all underlying processes of occurring during the transformations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other major chemical elements in the ocean waters. The publication is arranged in sixteen chapters containing nearly two hundred informative figures and data tables, valuable reports on the major technological advances in the subject area, made by a group of experienced and world recognized pros in oceanography. Moreover, in it focusing on the major role that DOM plays in elemental cycling, and this is actually the area with a great informational demand. Denniss Hansell and Craig Carlson did a remarkably good job in covering, in a single volume, literally all important aspects of the biogeochemistry of marine DOM and also providing a truly comprehensive review and introducing all important key issues, that made the present title maybe the best and definitely most up-to-date of those available today.
The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed. The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation. Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...
The main purpose of the present guide is to provide a thorough reference which might be useful to various port authorities as well as operating management of LNG carriers and terminals in reviewing or developing their planning in order to avoid the accidents or at lease reduce their possibility. The publication would also be quite helpful in controlling the possible consequences of such accidents happening within the port limits. This second (revised) edition takes into account the STCW Convention and SOLAS IX as well as the ISM Code. It covers ships in transit and operation, ships alongside, public relations and periodic review. Note, however, that the present publication shall not be treated as a comprehensive technical manual on contingency planning since the authors have confined this document to the aspect directly relating to the carriage and handling of gases. The circumstances influencing the contingency planning may vary from port to ports in the matters such as nautical/weather considerations, types of cargo being handled, authorities etc. When preparing this document, broader interpretation of the term "contingency planning" was taken, including considerations related to the accident prevention and control of possible consequences.
The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning. The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry. The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.
Another official publication developed and released by IACS - this one deals with the single deck container vessels constructed with the double side skin tanks, the passageways and double bottom in the area treated as the cargo space. These vessels are exclusively intended to transport containerized cargoes in their cargo holds as well as on the deck and on top of hatch covers. The publication starts with the intro, followed by the chapter containing the applicable classification requirements for periodical surveys as well as damage/repair; the next chapter provides some necessary technical background that is to be possessed by the people conducting the surveys; then there is a chapter addressing the survey preparation/planning/execution matters. The book also provides the important information of the failures of the structural parts and instructions on the repairs to be done. These Guidelines will be very useful for any surveyor performing the above mentioned surveys as well as to any ship owner, or operator, or even any crew member dealing with preparation of the vessel for class inspection and presenting all relevant items to the surveyor. The instructions provided in the book are really the ones to be followed in order to keep the ship safe.
This presentation by SIGTTO applies to the valves installed on board liquid petroleum gas vessels, but it can provide guidance to such valves on LPG terminals, as well. It is intended to serve as a supplemental guide to be used together with the relevant standards and codes for LPG valves and shall not override them. In this book such an important issues as valve design, specific design consideration for ESD (emergency shutdown) valves, valve testing, material requirements and codes and standards, have been addressed. The publication is mostly intended to provide necessary technical guidance to the designers and/or operators on the applicable general requirements for valves for LPG service, designed for an operating temperature ranging between -55 and +80 degrees Celsius. Though the document was specifically developed to apply to LPG vessels, the provisions contained in it may be equally applied throughout the liquefied petroleum gas industry. Note, however, that this paper shall not override any national/international standards or codes. The appendix at the last part of the document provides considerations to be taken into account during the periods of construction and maintenance.
The purpose of the present SIGTTO publication is to provide a proper explanation of how insulation flanges protect from ignition caused by arcing. It contains information on the inductive circuits, electrical characteristics of the cargo transfer hoses together with the supporting calculations, some examples of the effects of hose inductance and resistance, information on the effect of capacitance, testing of the flanges and multiple loading arms and parallel circuits, all supplemented with the list of definitions and conclusions and recommendations. The insulation flanges have been used for several decades; their effectiveness is sometimes seriously challenged, though there have been no reported fire incidents on the manifolds installed on board of tankers or gas carriers. This shall be taken into consideration by the ship operators having a background of road tanker operations, supplying the LNG as fuel oil. Since this document mainly concentrates on the protection from arcing-caused fires, we would definitely consider it very important and recommended to everyone involved in such sort of operations as the info provided in the booklet might help in improving the operational safety.
The present IACS Manual was prepared and officially released to the marine industry by IACS in order to provide people with the guidelines for bulk carriers with a single deck and single skin, with the double bottom, with hopper side and topside tanks. The vessels addressed by this Manual are primarily intended for the marine transportation of the dry cargo in bulk. The authors of the book mostly focus on the survey procedures established by the classification societies forming the IACS, but it will also be very useful in connection with the examination schemes of any owners, ship operators, or regulatory bodies other than class. The publication includes a good review of the survey preparation instructions covering all relevant safety aspects in connection with the performance of the surveys, required access facilities, and preparation for surveys. The guidelines encompass the main areas of the hull where the structural damages have been noted with the focus made on the key features of the structural items. Another feature of this book is that in includes a special section illustrating the examples of structural damage and deterioration and explains the possible causes and recommended repairs. The team of authors developed this publication using the best info available.
Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems. As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others. This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.
This popular publication is intended to describe all up-to-date electrical practices that have been employed in international shipping of today. The contents of this handbook was specifically designed to provide all required training support to the students. The specific intention of the authors was to assist the marine engineers and electrical officers in proper understanding of the shipboard electrical installations, equipment, systems and their maintenance. The electrical power system of the vessel has been explained in terms of the main and emergency generation and distribution, including the matters of the electrical safety and associated safe working practices. The types of the faults occurring in the electrical circuits and their significant have been examined together with the different protection forms and methods. In addition to that, the book explains the construction of motors and starters as well as their operation and protection principles. The title includes a surveys of the variable speed control methods for motors as applicable to the vessels. Moreover, the publication describes all electrical services for ships refrigeration installations, A/C, cathodic protection, lighting and various auxiliary equipment...
The present Guide was prepared and released in accordance with the relevant technical requirements of the MARPOL Conventions and associated interpretations with the intention to be used together with them. Please note however that this paper is not dealing with the requirements related to the construction/equipment. Under the Annex I of the Convention any discharge of oil or oil-containing mixture is prohibited from the oil tankers, including the mixtures coming from the bilges located in the cargo pump rooms, within a distance of fifty nautical miles from the nearest land. In addition, the flow and concentration, as well as the quantity of the substances discharges anywhere else are also limited. Obviously, the only way to ensure due compliance with these limitations is to adhere to the oil retention procedures. Those procedures would typically involve the collection and separation of any oily waters appearing as a result of tank cleaning/ballasting operations. These mixtures are to be accumulated in a special tanks to be subsequently disposed of somewhere ashore. This volume is mainly concerned with these procedures and their application; the information contained in this document will be of great importance and practical use to the crew members as well as to all other personnel involved in the above stated operations.