||Kyung-II Chang, Chang-Ik Zhang, Chul Park, Se-Jong Ju, Sang-Hoon Li, Mark Wimbush
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...One of the major scientific topics relating to the East Sea oceanography is its own thermohaline circulation, similar to that occurring in the North Atlantic. Sill depths of the straits connecting the East Sea with adjacent seas and the North Pacific are shallower than 200 m, and subsurface waters below about 300 m constitute the Proper Water of the East Sea, first named by the famous Japanese oceanographer. Prof. Michitaka Uda in 1934. The Proper Water and intermediate water masses occupy more than 90 % of the East Sea water volume. They are formed in the northern East Sea. discharged to the south, and modified within the East Sea. Another unique property of the East Sea is its high biological productivity, especially in its southwestern part, the Ulleung Basin, where the nutrient-depleted Kuroshio branch, the Tsushima Warm Current, prevails. The primary productivity in the Ulleung Basin is as high as that of the ocean's major upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling, large- and meso-scale circulation are thought to play a role in maintaining this high productivity. Thus the East Sea is an ideal place to address the calibration of a wide range of proxies for ocean ventilation and productivity based on present oceanic conditions, as well as down-core records of the past. The evidence for rapid changes of physical and biogeochemical properties in the East Sea is compelling. Despite its long history of observations and studies, a comprehensive understanding of the ongoing changes and future projections of the East Sea is yet to be provided...