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Here is a truly excellent compilation of stowage factors. The publication was prepared by the industry experts and is providing reader with the necessary information on the stowage factors. One of the most useful reference sources covering literally all classes of merchandise. This sixth edition of the volume has been significantly revised in order to include more useful data such as the stowage factors for bulk shipments of the ore cargo, sweet oil, containerships etc.

The stowage factors presented in the book are in cubic meters as well as cubic feet per ton. The information contained in this publication is the result of combined work of a team of experts and it took years to gather it all. All entries included in the volume are arranged in alphabetical order for easiest reference. There is a separate section addressing measurement and capacity of the shipping containers.

In short, the book is full of up-to-date and useful data arranged in such a way that would allow their immediate use on board any cargo ship so we do recommend having a copy at all times. Several supplementary tables are also there to give some additional data, such as tonnage conversion, salinity and draught adjustment etc.

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Weldability. Hot and Cold Cracking.

In the course of the welding cycle three events occur:

  1. 1. Filler metal and contiguous base metal are melted and resolidify to form a fused connection.
  2. 2. The heat effect of welding subjects the adjacent base metal to a thermal gradient ranging from above the base metal melting point to ambient temperature. The heat affected zone, HAZ, and deposited weld metal then cool to ambient temperature. As indicated in the picture, the variety of metallurgical structures produced in this heat affected zone includes those exposed to the various temperatures which produce resolidification of melted base metal, grain growth, grain refinement, or modification of metallurgical microstructure.
  3. 3. The solidification of molten metal, as well as the metallurgical phase changes, induce plastic flow and develop residual stresses which may exceed the yield point in magnitude; thus resulting in structural distortion


Hot Cracking

When cracking occurs at elevated temperatures, the crack is usually intergranular, meaning between grain boundaries. Such Weldability. Hot and Cold Cracking - 2cracking is associated with excessive solidification and cooling stresses acting on constituents present at the grain boundaries which are relatively weak at elevated temperatures. The weakened grain boundary may consist of specific low melting constituents such as sulfides in steel. In other cases the deposition of a weld bead of unfavorable geometry may impose excessive cooling stresses on the hot weld deposit which has relatively low strength at elevated temperature.

For example, in submerged arc welding, weld beads such as those shown in the picture, would tend to form a center section which solidifies last and remains at an elevated temperature after the surrounding metal has solidified and cooled. The low strength at the grain boundaries of the material at elevated temperature is inadequate to resist the thermal stresses, and hot cracking occurs. Such cracking, can usually be readily prevented by changing weld parameters to produce a bead of more favorable contour.


Cold Cracking - Hydrogen Cracks or Delayed Cracks


The role of hydrogen is an important consideration in the welding of ship steels. Hydrogen-bearing compounds such as water or organic compounds present on the filler metal surface, in electrode coverings, or on base metal surfaces may dissociate in the welding arc to form atomic hydrogen.

The atomic hydrogen penetrates and is highly soluble in molten steel weld metal and the zone of adjacent heat affected steel which has been transformed to a phase known as austenite; the austenite Weldability. Hot and Cold Cracking - 3forms when the heat affected zone of a steel is heated above a critical temperature, (approximately 900°C (1,640°F), for structural steels.

As the solidified weld metal and austenitized heat affected zone cool to ambient temperatures, they are transformed into non-austenitic phases which release most of the dissolved hydrogen from solution, since hydrogen is practically insoluble in these phases.

When hydrogen is released from solution in the presence of a hard zone in the microstructure and a high residual stress field, a condition known as hydrogen cracking may occur. Since the time of such cracking varies from immediate to several days or weeks after the completion of welding, the phenomenon is also known as delayed cracking.

The tendency for such cracking varies directly with the magnitude of:

  1. 1. hydrogen concentration,
  2. 2. local metal hardness,
  3. 3. residual stress.

Hydrogen delayed cracking is the most important and troublesome form of cracking encountered in welding of the higher strength ship steels.

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This is an excellent and world class publication, a truly must-have for all navigators of today; in fact, it will be interesting and useful not only to the ship masters but also to the owners, and anyone else involved in planning the voyage. The text of the publication will provide mariners with the clear and easy-to-use information and all required support so that they can properly calculate the best, meaning both shortest and economical, distance between any ports.

The content of the volume is presented in accordance with the market areas. The volume includes numerous and very informative data tables and illustrations, maps and lots of other supplementary information. According to the reviews received from different parts of the world, the publication shall be treated as one of the most valuable reference sources for the people in the shipping industry.

Note that it is becoming increasingly popular among the superyacht fleet owners, brokers and of course navigators who have already appreciated the comprehensiveness and user-friendliness of the volume – the author managed to collect enormous amount of useful information and arrange it in a maximum comfortable way. All ports regularly used for commercial shipping are covered.

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This publication was prepared by Frank Ward Sterling, Lieutenant of the United States Navy Fleet, back in 1942. Taking into account the date of the release, it is quite obvious that some of the latest technological developments in the field of boating cannot be reflected in this volume. However, the book covers all important aspects of the boat handling which have actually remained unchanged.

The volume will be of some interest to any boat owner and any person willing to get to the essentials of the boat navigation. The material is arranged in two halves covering boat navigation and seamanship. While the first part deals with the various navigational tools, records and publications, dead reckoning and positioning of the boat, the second one addresses soundings and tides, weather issues, rules of the road etc.

In short we would recommend all people planning their voyage on the boat to have a look into this book to ensure proper knowledge of the theory. The material is presented in a very understandable way and maybe that is why the publication is still used by many people notwithstanding the age of the book. In fact the explanations provided by the authors will make the topics understandable even to the people with no maritime background.

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The present volume is making one of the parts of the famous Reed’s series of book. The intention of the author is to provide a comprehensive professional coverage of the theoretical knowledge related to the naval architecture the one particularly required by the marine engineers.

The arrangement of the material contained in the book is very helpful to the reader – the author starts with the very elementary information and then step by step goes deeper. Throughout the content of the publication, the main emphasis is placed onto the essential theoretical principles.

The text is supplemented by the numerous illustrations of a very informative character, and such approach makes understanding much easier. We may assure you that all engineers who work systematically with this book will eventually find the time spent on the learning amply fully and adequately repaid since they will have a good understanding of all principles of the naval architecture and be able to apply their knowledge when handling their day to day operations.

The book definitely deserves attention of all marine engineers since the author concentrates on the maters specifically chosen to suit their needs with no excessive information.

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The content of the present publication was specifically developed to assist people working with the aluminium as well as various aluminium alloys. As you know, subject material is in quite wide use in the contemporary shipbuilding. Since connection of different parts of the ship’s hull normally implies their welding one to another, it is very important for the workers and designers to have a good understanding of the welding process.

This is also important because having a good technical knowledge on this would help in evaluation of the weld design at earlier stages, predicting all possible problems in the future. The content of the book will provide all of them with the basic information relating to the metallurgic principles, which they well have to be aware of in order to do a good and defect-less job.

The volume shall be used as a comprehensive guidebook to all shop-floor engineers since the author has covered all important areas including weldability of the aluminium alloys, advantages and disadvantages of application of the different processes, quality assurance and control, solving of the different problems involved, and many other aspects deserving attention.

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As we know, there are two Cods introduced by the IMO as a result of so many maritime accidents including shipboard casualties and marine pollution prevention, namely ISM Code and STCW Code. Their timely introduction to the shipping industry was aimed to focus the attention of all people involved to the critical importance of the safety standards. In this book, the authors have addressed the maritime safety through proper and thorough examination of the human factors.

Note that is not prepared to be a sort of purely academic reference book even though some academic arguments addressing the behavioral safety are included. We would rather say that this book will be great when applied as a practitioner’s book containing useful texts that would be interesting for all people working on board as well as to the supporting personnel ashore and operating companies.

All maritime professionals duly caring about the safety of life at sea and prevention of the marine environment pollution will definitely find the content of this publication useful. Starting with the brief historical background, then author has proceeded to literally all important aspects of the maritime safety making the book an absolutely excellent volume with a truly remarkable coverage of the topics.

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This publication is intended to be concerned with the most significant matters relating to the tanker markets. The author has selected the several issues of the tanker marker and shipping cost structure with the objective to bring some clarification ion some of the most complicated issues. According to the author, the history keeps repeating itself when we are talking about the behavior of the people operating in the tanker markets of today.

If you have a close look into the contemporary tanker shipping market, you will be able to observe the very same incidence that used to take place in the past, throughout the whole history of shipping industry. Unfortunately, as the problems continue to repeat, this shows that the people literally refuse to learn… The publication is quite compact and in fact it is a working paper.

However, the author addresses some matters that will definitely be of practical interest to the people directly involved in the contemporary maritime shipping industry, and particularly cost management when applied to the tanker market. Taking into account the huge experience possessed by the author, it would make sense to familiarize yourself with the volume and find something practically interesting.

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