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This is actually the very first publication to address modern seaports from the legal point of view. The author has provided a comprehensive and professional overview of the seaports of today’s world. He will give readers an essential instrument to be applied for when establishing the legal basis of the sea ports. The document opens with the information about the sea ports in general; the author addresses the problem of lack of interest for them in the modern international law.

The main body of the publication deals with such important topics as the pre-industrial and industrial ports, the port of globalization, the Colonial factories, Paolo Sarpi’s doctrine and Geneva Convention of 1923, as well as the Mar del Plata and the Montego Bay Conventions…

In short, this is an excellent compilation of the information that would be required for everyone dealing with the law aspects of the seaports since it will let them stay updated. The remarkable coverage of the publication has gained it the worldwide popularity. Note that all recent developments in the industry have been duly addressed in the publication. The seaports have been dealt with in detail together with all legal aspects.

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History Leading to the 1969 Load Line Conventon

In one of the previous articles we have given some brief Introduction to the Load Lines and Conditions of the Load Line Assignment. As we all know, the assignment of the shipboard load lines and associated requirements are listed in the International Convention on Load Lines of 1969. Today, let us check what were the changes and developments that eventually led to the need for the subject governing document.

Need for a Standardized System

The need for a standardized international system of tonnage measurement of ships is evidenced by the fact that small ships of identical size and form may measure less than 200 gross tons or more than 1000 gross tons and the fact that exemptible and deductible spaces are treated differently under various national rules. The variations in tonnages cause inequities in the assessment of charges and in the application of provisions of treaties and laws.

This need for a standardized system was recognized in tin initiation of the League of Nations study and in the Oslo Convention. History Leading to the 1969 Load Line Conventon - 2However, there were many differences in national systems and in those systems evolving from tin foregoing international activities that were yet to be resolved.

Work by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization

In the meantime, the question of tonnage measurement had often been discussed by the Transport and Communications Commission of the United Nations. After the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) came into being in 1958, the task of developing a universal system of tonnage measurement of ships was taken over by the Organization as the United Nations had intended.

Against this background, IMCO formed a subcommittee of its Maritime Safety Committee in 1959 to study the problem and to draw up recommendations for a system of tonnage measurement suitable for worldwide application, which would be just and equitable between the individual ships and groups of ships, and would not hamper good design or mitigate seaworthiness, and which would take account of the economics of the shipping industry generally.

Over a period of years, the Subcommittee and its working group considered a number of proposals for a universal system of tonnage measurement. Finally the International Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 19G6, was held in London during a History Leading to the 1969 Load Line Conventon - 3four-week period beginning May 27, 1969.

The Conference adopted the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships (ICTM, 1969), which the delegations felt largely met the above-listed criteria for a satisfactory system.

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Tonnage Measurement - Historical Background

Tonnage measurement rules generally are spelled out in great detail in national laws. More detailed criteria for application of the laws are spelled out in regulations. The laws and regulations are interpreted by administrations established for the purpose. Since tonnages are used to determine the applicability of provisions of treaties, laws, and regulations and as bases for assessing charges, fees, and duties, any change in rules that would result in substantially different tonnage assignments for many vessels would disrupt the shipping industry. Historically, administrative decisions and rule changes have favored the ship owner, probably, because other segments of the shipping industry can protect their individual interests merely by changing rates for charges or by adopting parameters other than tonnages.

Transition from Deadweight to Volumetric Tonnage

The use of one half the breadth for the draft in the formula for approximating deadweight in the system preceding the Moorsom system led owners to acquire vessels that were poorly designed to obtain official tonnage assignments that were making the register tonnage a simple function of the volume of a vessel, the British opted for a coefficient (1/100) that would, on the average, slightly reduce the existing tonnages instead of opting for a coefficient that would more precisely approximate the deadweight.

The reasoning apparently was that if a system yielding higher, more precise deadweight tonnages were adopted, ship owners would find them burdened with higher bases for being assessed charges with no assurance that charging authorities would correspondingly reduce their rates. Other governments in amending their laws followed the example set by England. While the philosophy of avoiding radical changes in the tonnages assigned merchant vessels continues, governments can be persuaded to Tonnage Measurement - Historical Background - 2make their rules more logical.

In seeking a universal tonnage measurement system, the International Conference on Tonnage Measurement held in London in 1969 decided to do away with the system of exemptions and deductions from gross tonnage. The conference adopted a formula that would yield gross tonnages closely approximating those of vessels measured under present national rules without exemptions for shelter 'tween decks, deck spaces opened by tonnage openings, passenger spaces, and water-ballast spaces. On the other hand, the conference decided to maintain the net tonnage advantage enjoyed by shelter deck types and to extend that advantage to other types of vessels having low draft to depth ratios. That decision has already caused some charging authorities to shift their charge bases from net tonnage to gross tonnage.

Resistance to Illogical Changes

With varying degrees of success, governments have, at times, resisted illogical rule changes forced upon or willingly adopted by administrations of other governments. National rules usually provide that a space outside the double bottom adapted only to carry water ballast shall be included in the gross tonnage and deducted to arrive at net tonnage. They also provide that a space above deck shall be included in the gross tonnage if it is closed in and is available for the carriage of cargo or stores or for the berthing or accommodation of passengers or crew.

The United States adopted the Moorsom system by an Act of Congress dated May 6, 1864. That act specifically required passenger spaces to be included in the register tonnage. By an act dated February 28, 1865, however, the U.S. provided for the exemption of passenger spaces on or above the first deck which is not a deck to the hull. Only Liberia and Panama have followed that example. Pursuant to a law enacted February 6, 1909, until 1915 the U.S. included in the gross tonnage then deducted to arrive at net tonnage space adapted only for carrying water ballast out¬side the double bottom.

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This publication should be treated as a must have one for all ship electricians and marine engineers working on board contemporary ships. Prepared by the professional electrical superintendent, it will provide you with the perfect technical overview of virtually all electrical components together with the systems that are normally incorporated in the ships of today.

The material is arranged in several major chapters, each of which concentrates on some particular topics; note that, apart from the text and theoretical knowledge, the book is full of the practical examples and informative drawings and illustrations to ease the understanding.

The volume is an excellent reference guide for the shipboard engineers and will be very useful as an instructional resource. In fact, it is an invaluable one for the marine engineers and ETOs who are willing to improve both their theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject.

The contents of the book cover everything starting from the reading electrical diagrams and then proceeding to the control elements, relays including all types of them, motor starters, switches, protection and monitoring arrangements, motors, breakers, HV systems commonly found on board large modern vessels, sensors, PLCs, and so many others.

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This is the official IMO Model Course No. 1.04 dealing with the basic training for the cargo operations carried out on board modern liquefied gas tankers. As this is the case with all other model courses, it is prepared in accordance with the STCW convention to meet the requirements of the A-V/1-2-1. First of all, the trainees will be given general information on the liquid gas tankers, their construction and general arrangement.

Then, they will proceed to the cargo operations, covering the onboard piping systems and associated valves, equipment used for the cargo handling, loading and unloading of the cargo as well as care during the transit, ESD, cleaning and purging of the cargo tanks etc. Since a good knowledge of the properties of the gases in definitely required for their safe handling, there is a separate chapter in the course addressing their characteristics and physical properties together with the temperature, pressure, generation of the electrostatic charge and chemical symbols.

Note that all above is only one of the parts included in this course. The publication will be extremely useful for all crew members of the tankers and particularly those directly involved in planning and performing the shipboard cargo operations.

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What is the actual purpose of the modern navy fleet and what types of the ships would this purpose require? The present publication is going to tackle those two questions through checking the latest technological and operational naval developments, covering the period since the time when the Cold War ended.

The book will provide interested readers with the general economic and political overview and address the most important naval operations; in addition to that, the author describes the composition of today’s fleets together with the design developments. The volume will provide a very thorough contextual analysis of the above mentioned period.

The main idea of the author was to explain how exactly the technological developments shaped the contemporary navy fleets. As we see, some of the navy fleets are rising and others are falling and this is quite a constant change taking place throughout the history.

The good strategic and operational overviews provided by the author are supplemented with the fleet analysis and information about the ongoing global trends in the field of design and construction of the navy vessels. The modern navy aviation has also been paid attention in this publication, so that the readers can have a full picture.

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The content of the present Guide was prepared and officially released by the OCIMF, the world recognized and respected Oil Companies International Marine Forum organization, in order to give the design considerations relating to the marine terminals in connection with the fire protection and associated evacuation of people in case of emergency.

In this document, the term marine terminal will include docks and piers as well as the sea land constructions normally utilized for the crude oil transfer plus transfer of the liquefied gas and different petroleum products. Note that the definition of terminal is limited to that defined by the ISGOTT and does not include pumping arrangements, onshore tanks and other facilities that are not directly located on the loading facilities.

The authors discuss the established good practices that shall be used as the foundation when assessing the aforementioned fire protection and evacuation arrangements at the terminals, including both existing terminals and those proposed for future construction. The guidance provided in the pages of this document are relating to the ISGOTT/Chapters 12, 13 and will therefore be of practical interest to all people in the industry.

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Check this latest release of the Bureau Veritas Rules for Classification of Steel Ships – note that this is the consolidated edition of the Rules featuring coverage of all relevant areas. The content of the document is arranged in six major sections. The first section, or Part A, provides introductory information on the classification of the ships and associated class surveys, while the second section is dealing with the ship’s hull and stability, including main principles applied to the design of the ships, design loads, scantlings and outfitting of the hull, strength, protection from corrosion etc.

The next section is covering such critical items as ship’s machinery, electrical arrangements, ship automation system and fire protection. The remaining three sections address the service notations assigned to the ships depending on their specific features, particularly ones for the OSV, i.e. offshore service vessels, and tug ships, as well as the additional classification notations that are assigned to the ship at the request of the owner and upon verification of compliance with the relevant sections of the Rules. A must-have publication on board all vessels classed by BV, one of the world leaders in the field of marine and offshore classification.

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