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24.05.2020
Shipbuilding Costing and Contract Arrangements

Naval architects and engineers in structured organizations are frequently excluded from participating in the contracting and financing arrangements of vessel construction. This exclusion is most unfortunate and it is anticipated that this section will assist naval architects and engineers in contributing to these arrangements.

Far too often the approach to vessel selection and financing involves lawyers, accountants, financial planners, and ship construction people working independently of each other without the continuing interchange of ideas that is so essential during the planning stage.

The widest knowledge of any proposed vessel construction and the fullest participation in the mission aspects of new vessels provide the best climate for producing the most effective design and construction.

If continuing interaction of the interested parties is not feasible, the next best thing is to have those entering the field of vessel construction understand fully the various contributions of the lawyers, the accountants, the financial planners, and the operators to the design, and the documents and instruments developed over the years to ensure the continuum of events which must occur timely to produce the desired vessel within the desired time at an acceptable price. With the intellect considered to be the prerequisite of such understanding comes the patience to accept a less perfect alternative when it is more important to see the project move onward.

Accordingly, this section is proceeding on a format which is intended first as a narrative of a typical ship design genesis, its subsequent contracting and construction, and its delivery and operating inception. After this over-simplified case history approach, a more detailed discussion of the legal and financial aspects and impacts, including the documents usually involved in such transactions will be presented.

Where deemed appropriate, a sampling of alternative approaches will be included, all to show the reader that the kinds of agreements which can be made between a purchaser and a builder or between a financier and a purchaser/borrower are limited only by the law of the land and the ingenuity of the parties dealing in the matter - the assumption being in all cases that the objective is the best product at the least all-inclusive cost to the owner.

Also, where the narrative leads to identifiable problem areas, sufficient analysis will be outlined to permit understanding and insight into the course of these problems so that the naval architect or marine engineer might be better prepared to avoid controversial approaches in preparing ship construction documents for the clients or principals.

A significant number of naval architects, engineers and others are directly involved in United States shipbuilding and shipping business practices which differ in many respects from those in other shipbuilding countries. Although this chapter discusses international costing and contracting arrangements to some extent it is primarily concerned with U. S. practice.

To the extent considered necessary, reference is therefore frequently made to specific United States rules, organizations and operating procedures. At the same time, the general discussions apply equally to all international shipbuilding and shipping.

When dealing specifically with the United States government, those procurements made directly by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard are generally so identified; when the term government aid is used it generally means the government is not procuring the vessel but that the owner, buyer, or purchaser has arranged a construction differential subsidy (CDS) for the shipbuilder and/or obtained a government insured mortgage or other benefits available under the Merchant Marine Act.

In discussions of shipbuilding costing and contract arrangements, a number of terms are used that have specific connotations in this aspect of the shipbuilding process. The following definitions can be considered to apply.

Architect of Contract: A term borrowed from the legal profession to indicate the person or entity that authored the contract document.

Builder: In this text, builder, contractor, and shipyard are used synonymously. It is the entity that signs the construction contract and undertakes to physically build the vessel. The various forms are used as these terms are encountered in invitations, contracts and specifications.

Owner: This term is used to identify the buyer of a vessel to be constructed. In the parlance of MarAd contracts the term purchaser is usually substituted for buyer. Primarily, the intent is to name the party who selects the design and causes the initiation of the contract to build. It is recognized that in leveraged lease situations the owner of record of the constructed vessel may be someone or some group having only a financial interest. In such cases owner as used herein is the charterer.

Naval Architect: Anyone having decision authority over the design of the vessel to be constructed or reconstructed. ln-house naval architects are those on the wage payroll of the shipowner or entity contracting for a vessel. Outside or Contract naval architects are those persons whose business is the design and engineering of vessels, and who contract with owners or shipyards to perform their services for a fee.

Design Agent: A term used interchangeably with an outside or contract naval architect. It has come into use as shipyard designs have become prevalent. Shipyards are frequently design agents. They do employ naval architects, and those who work at design are usually in the engineering department or the planning department.

Reps: Abbreviation for representatives; as, for in¬stance, owner's reps are the inspectors and plan approvers working on-site during ship construction.

Lead Ship: The first vessel built to a new set of plans and specifications. It is not necessarily the first vessel delivered because under circumstances of the order being allotted to two or more yards, the first vessel in one of the other yards may be delivered first. This occurs because of better production methods, or because of unforeseen delays in the lead yard.

Following Ships: Ships built to the same plans and specifications whether in the same yard as the lead ship, or in other yards, are following ships.

Berth Term: This refers to dry cargo liner operations utilizing publicly issued schedules of port calls.

Cease and determine: A phrase used in Maritime contracts to indicate a full unconditional stop action plus an inventory of the financial position as of that moment.

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24.05.2020
THE ROV MANUAL — A USER GUIDE FOR REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLES

In fact, this publication is the first one to provide a proper basis for using the small-sized observation-class remotely operated vehicles for the purpose of performing surveys, inspections and researches. The document is intended to serve as a guidebook offering users a complete training and giving all required information covering the operations of ROV - it shall be used by the technicians and offshore engineers but the content will be equally interesting to the enthusiasts of the underwater activities.

The authors of the manual are mainly focusing on the underwater uses of these vehicles for the industrial, scientific and commercial studies and researches. The book will inform readers about the marine robotics as well as of the navigation instruments commonly used to faster and more efficiently obtain the mission results and associated data.

It is also covering the technology together with its applications, introducing the basic technologies required and showing how they are related to the specific requirements. Such approach will help readers in identification of the equipment considered essential for the efficient and cost effective operation of the vehicle.

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24.05.2020
THE EXCELSIOR AZIMUTH AND POSITION FINDING TABLES

The main objective of the tables contained in the present classic publication was to provide ship navigators with better means to find the position of their ships through analyzing the sun, starts and moon altitudes. The information was compiled by the professional mariner possessing great practical seagoing experience and so many real-life observations. Traditionally for this sort of publications, the volume opens with the explanations and use of the tables – this is necessary to enable the readers to get maximum use of the content.

This chapter is followed with the one containing general rules and examples and also valuable remarks including calculation formulae and position finding rules. Then, there are dozens of practical examples of applications of the tables when navigating and this is where the introductory part of the book ends. The tables themselves make the major part of the book. The volume will be interesting for the people fond of marine navigation, who not only want to navigate their vessels safely but also need to have a good picture of the underlying essentials and some historical background – it would be good to know how all these were handled in not so distant past.

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23.05.2020
SAFE CONTAINER OPERATIONS

Containerization has revolutionized the shipping of cargo. It is estimated that some eighty million containers make over two hundred million trips a year, carrying about ninety percent of today’s bulk cargoes. It means more than four hundred million container handling operations done in a year’s time in nearly all ports around the planet. As for the ships that carry them, they are now capable of transporting thousands of containers.

However, there are many issues involved in marine transportation of the containerized cargo, and also the competition in the field is great. In turn, this means that already tight schedules are becoming even tighter, bigger ships carrying more and more containers on board; however, there are now fewer people on board to deal with handling those thousands of containers.

The nature of the container business is very complicated, for example in many cases the stowage plan of the vessel considers loading in one continent and discharging in another part of the world. There are more and more people in the shipping process and an increasing lack of familiarity with the process itself.

These days, the reality is that the ships cannot always be sure exactly what cargo they are carrying or how it is placed and secured within the container. Every year there are containers badly stowed, containers damaged and leaking, lost overboard and even fires and explosions; and, the worst of all, there is loss of lives and damage to the marine environment…

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21.05.2020
THE OIL & GAS INDUSTRY — A NONTECHNICAL GUIDE

We would definitely say that this book is the best one for those willing to understand the oil and gas industry but having little to no technical skills and experience in the field. The author has provided readers with a broadest perspective on the industry, paying particular attention to the exploration and production of the hydrocarbons in America. You will be taken through all operations taking place in the course of exploration and evaluation of the available resources, up to their production, storage and final delivery to the customers.

The volume mainly focuses on the various equipment and machinery, and all processes and techniques. The oil and gas terms have been provided in the appendix. The author wrote the book trying to avoid any formal and too technical jargon to make reading easier for the newcomers.

All of the important aspects have been covered by the author who did succeed in covering all of those areas in a remarkably informative manner. The book can be used both in the classroom for the students and for the self-study, one can just read it at home to have a good picture of what is happening in the oil and gas industry without having to go too deep into technical details, and this is the main idea of the author.

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21.05.2020
MARINE RENEWABLE AND OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY

Another conference, this one dedicated to the Marine Renewable & Offshore Wind Energy - RINA International Conference - 2010.  The opening document of the papers included in the set discusses the modern situation with the offshore wind development. It it critically important to underline that the experience could easily get transferred from the more mature offshore industries like oil and gas industry.

The team of authors of this article argued that the today's challenges and opportunities involved are multi-faceted and it would imply a serious need for the multi-disciplinary approach for proper assessment of the risks as well as optimization of the returns. The VCA, i.e. Value Chain Assessment is introduced, an the most adequate methodologies for optimization of the balance between risks and returns. Last couple of decades have demonstrated quite significant increase in the potential/implementation of the developmental and research projects relating to the wind energy.

The demand for subject type of renewable energy made the participants of the industry to look for new resources offshore. Subject trends have resulted in the implementation of the new technologies in cases where a relatively limited of experience data s possessed... Recommended for people willing to be updated with all recent developments in the industry...​

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20.05.2020
Introduction to the Port State Control

The basic inspection regime for all the MOUs is the IMO conventions. These include the Load Lines, SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW, COLREG and Tonnage conventions. Some MOUs also examine compliance with the relevant ILO conventions. Ships can check each MOU’s website for the further requirements. Complications can arise because for all members of MOUs, their national legislation will take priority over the MOU agreements.

MOUs have different levels of inspection. The initial inspection usually takes about three hours. If there are clear grounds to concern, it may progress to a more detailed inspection, adding another hour or two. Ships with a poor inspection history may be subject to a more detailed inspection. If the Master believes that port state control inspection is likely, he should double check the gangway watch. An ineffective or absent gangway watch will start the inspection badly as it implies poor compliance with the ISM Code. A proper gangway watch must always be in place. The ISPS Code must be strictly kept to. Ships with high target scores, such as old bulk carriers, passenger ships, oil tankers and gas and chemical carriers, will be subjected to an expanded inspection which will take six to eight hours.

MOUs have different levels of inspection. The initial inspection usually takes about three hours. If there are clear grounds to Introduction to the Port State Control - 2concern, it may progress to a more detailed inspection, adding another hour or two. Ships with a poor inspection history may be subject to a more detailed inspection. If the Master believes that port state control inspection is likely, he should double check the gangway watch. An ineffective or absent gangway watch will start the inspection badly as it implies poor compliance with the ISM Code. A proper gangway watch must always be in place. The ISPS Code must be strictly kept to. Ships with high target scores, such as old bulk carriers, passenger ships, oil tankers and gas and chemical carriers, will be subjected to an expanded inspection which will take six to eight hours.

Under the Paris MOU, the ship is obliged to inform the port if it believes that it is due for the mandatory annual inspection. The Paris MOU website lists the types of ship for which this is required. Always ensure that the PSC officer is escorted to the Master’s cabin. Be aware that the inspector will be looking around to see the state of the ship.

 

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20.05.2020
SHIP BALLAST OPERATIONS EXPLAINED

Watch this training video and you will have full information about the shipboard ballast systems. The ballasting and de-ballasting are considered one of the most important operations on board any vessel. There are many factors to be taken into account when performing those operations and failure to do that properly may result in the bad consequences. For example, the stability of the ship is directly connected with the daft which, in turn, depends on the ballast condition of the ship.

That is why due attention shall be paid to the stability aspects. In order to properly evaluate the ballasting operations we shall have a good understanding of how they are performed, and this is not possible without having a clear picture of the shipboard ballasting equipment. The key components of the ballast system are ballast pumps and piping arrangements including valves, and they are all controlled via the shipboard ballast control system.

The ballasting and de-ballasting are conducted either by gravity, i.e. using the natural forces, or, when that is not possible due to the position of the ship’s hull in relation to the sea water surface, by means of the pumps. This video will show all stages of the operations making it clear even for the beginners.

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