Effective Communication On Board

It is very important to understand the importance of the shipboard communications at all levels in order to achieve safe and efficient ship operation. What is communication? Here is one possible definition – transferring signals and messages from one person to another with the purpose of creating an understanding, a particular meaning or a certain reaction from the other person. If no reaction is received, we are talking about one-way communication. According to statistics, as much as 70-80% of incidents and accidents at sea can be traced back to some kind of communication problem including those between personnel on the bridge because of different culture, native language, age, experience etc., between bridge and engine personnel, ship and tugs, ship and VTS, ship and ship owner/operator, ship and authorities. Nowadays when only a few ships are sailing with a radio officer, the bridge has become not only the main communication center for internal ship communication, but also the center for external communication services. This means additional workload for the OOW, and good communication skill has become even more important for the navigation officer. The main elements for establishing good bridge communications and teamwork are: Clear and precise messages delivered in standard marine English Mutual respect and confidence between the bridge team members A professional job attitude and share of the workload Good theoretical knowledge Efficient adoption of effective bridge practices and procedures Self-confidence Since communication problems have been identified as a factor which often plays a major role in sea incidents and many other accidents, the communication aspect of ship operation has been addressed by many different bodies at regular intervals over the last century. Among seafarers, the IMO publication “Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary” is probably the best-known publication about this subject today. In the late-eighties, a new communication idea was presented to the maritime world, namely Seaspeak. More than one thousand people from twenty-six maritime nations participated in the research and work that led to the production of the Seaspeak Reference Manual and the Seaspeak Training Manual. The central principle of Seaspeak is that the receiver should be alerted to the type of message that follows, at the very beginning of the message. This aim is achieved by the use of “message markers”, a label attached to a message. This principle is entirely in agreement with the IMO recommendations and the main purpose of Seaspeak is to reduce communication problems. Seaspeak messages are formed entirely from words within the English language. The total vocabulary used in Seaspeak comprises three kinds of words and expressions, namely the vocabulary of “general” English, and words in general and specialized maritime use. Seaspeak has seven official message markers. However, in connection with special operations, additional markers may be used. Question – indicates that the following message is of interrogative character Request – indicates that the contents of the following messages are asking for action from others with respect to the ship Information – indicates that the following message is restricted to observed facts Intention – indicates that the following message informs other traffic participants about the ship’s intention Warning – indicates that the following message informs other traffic participants about dangers Instruction – indicates that the following message implies the intention of the sender to influence the recipient(s) by regulation Advice – indicates that the following message implies the intention of the sender to influence the recipient(s) by a recommendation. The Officer on the Bridge watch should have a General Operators Certificate. For ships operating only in Area 1 a Restricted Operators Certificate is sufficient. The OOW will be responsible for ensuring compliance with the SOLAS requirements, the ITU Radio Regulations and any local watch keeping rules. The VHF watch keeping range is 20 to 30 NM, depending on antenna height. All ships must keep a continuous watch on the following channels: Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Channel 70 (156.525 MHz) Channel 16 (156.8 MHZ) when practicable Channel 13 (156.650 MHz) when practicable. When within their ranges, ships must keep a continuous watch on the NAVTEX (518 KHz) and Digital Selective Calling (2187.5 KHz) medium frequencies. High frequency broadcasts have a nearly unlimited range. Ships must keep a continuous watch on distress and DSC frequencies (4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 MHz), according to their position. Ships equipped with a Ship Earth Station must keep a continuous watch o the satellite appropriate to their position. The range of satellite broadcasts is limited to non-polar regions. A radio log containing records of all incidents connected with radio communications of importance to the safety of the life at sea must be maintained. The following information is normally required in the radio log: A summary of communications relating to distress, urgency and safety traffic A reference to important radio service incidents Own ship’s position should be noted at least once a day Identities of other stations with which contact has been made Problems due to interference, congestion etc. Unnecessary transmissions, obscene language etc. Radio equipment should be tested at the interval stated by the manufacturer and in accordance with Flag State requirements. Great care should be taken to avoid the transmission of false alerts when testing equipment. All ships should make a report to the relevant authorities when an accident involving another ship is observed or an accident on their own ship involves: A discharge or a probable discharge of oil or of other noxious liquid substances above permitted level has taken place A discharge or probable discharge of harmful substances in packaged form has occurred A discharge during the operation of the ship of oil on other noxious liquid substances in excess of what is allowed has occurred. The OOW should always be prepared for an emergency situation to occur. He must familiarize himself with all procedures. There should be refreshed and practiced as a drill at regular intervals. The OOW should always remember that an emergency incident does not become dangerous until it gets out of control. The most important thing to do during an emergency is to stay calm, think clearly and follow relevant emergency procedures. Follow standard procedures which have already been practiced in drills.

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The main objective of the IMO Model Course 1.19 is to meet the minimum competence standards applicable to the seafarers with respect to the shipboard safety familiarization as well as the basic training in the personal survival techniques, in accordance with the relevant sections of the STCW Convention.

The aim is to provide them with the proper guidance and necessary information to reach the KUP, standing for the knowledge, understanding and proficiency, so that the can demonstrate the due competence in the subject techniques. Those who have successfully completed all parts of the course will be considered as having sufficient skills and knowledge for performing the survival duties.

They will be expected to show the ability to don the lifejackets and immersion suits, operate the survival craft together with all equipment installed on board, and to be proficient in the usage of the location devices, such as the radio equipment. In addition, they should be able to take all necessary actions when boarding the survival craft in order to increase the chances of survival. Recommended to every single seafarer sailing on any vessel and willing to be duly prepared to any sort of situation.

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This book was written to address the important aspects of the hydrostatics and stability of the vessels and other marine facilities. We all know that this is one of the most critical areas of the naval architecture. The content covers the essential concepts under assumption that the readers have little to no prior technical knowledge. All of the topics covered in the volume have been dealt with in a very methodical manner, being explained step by step to achieve better understanding of the subject.

The book can be used by the students, willing to enhance their knowledge, as a good reference tool and textbook. There are in total ten chapters in the book, opening with the introduction where the basic vessel geometry is explained and forms are defined. The second chapter covers the flotation matters including the Archimedes’ Principle, static equilibrium, stability curves etc. The next chapters are dealing with the longitudinal stability and trim of the ship, followed by the centroids and methods.

Then, two chapters address the static ship stability at small and large angles of heel. The remaining chapters are devoted to the intact stability, dynamic stability and damage stability. This is a real must-have for any naval architect, from student to the professional.

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Distress flares

Distress flares are the essential item of safety equipment. Flares are one of the most effective and rapid means of both signaling distress and indicating your exact position. It is imperative that flares are stored in a water-proof container. Flares can play a key role in assisting early rescue and also reducing a heavy cost of search and rescue operations.

In Tasmania, for example, 48 % of boats are used outside smooth waters, in sheltered or open waters, and are therefore required to have flares on board. Of course, many areas of smooth water can get rough, so the subject recommendation should be applicable to those boats, as well.Distress flares

The general area of operation of your motor boat determines firstly whether they need to be carried and, secondly, the type of flares and number required. For sheltered, partially smooth waters the requirement is two red hand flares and two orange smoke flares. For open and coastal waters the requirement is two red hand flares, two orange smoke flares, and two red parachute rocket flares.

As various brands of flares have different methods of ignition, it is important to carefully read the instructions to ensure your familiarity with a method of operation. Prior to leaving, it is vital that all your passengers also know how to activate the flare. Your instructions may well save your life.

It is important to check the expiry date and replace any out of date product. Flares generally have three-year expiry from the date of manufacture. Such products can be returned to manufacturer. Be advised that it is an offence to activate a flare unless doing so for rescue purposes or when authorized by Master.

Distress flaresWhere possible, hand-held flares should be activated on the downwind side of the vessel. Your arm should be fully extended above your head. Make sure that all other passengers and a vessel superstructure is well clear of this operation. Hand flares, particularly red flares, emit extreme heat, and so do be careful when using them.

The parachute rocket flare is a hand-held self-contained distress rocket which ejects a parachute with a suspended red flare at around three hundred meter altitude. It burns for forty seconds at a brilliant thirty thousand candela. It can be seen from fifteen kilometers by day and forty kilometers or more by night. Rocket flares must not be activated when a helicopter or aircraft is overhead.

Orange smoke flares are the most effective device for daytime use. They emit a vivid expanding cloud of dense orange smoke visible for sixty seconds and can be seen at a distance of up to four kilometers at sea Distress flareslevel and even further from an aircraft.

Red flares are most effective at night but may be used during the day, as well. Red hand flares burn for over sixty seconds with an intense fifty thousand candela red light. They can be observed from a range of up to ten kilometers at sea level on a clear dark night and up to twenty kilometers from the air. They can be seen at day light over a shorter range.

Remember, you can be fined for not having the required safety equipment. Always check to ensure your compliance with the applicable requirements before you go boating. Needless to say that having all required safety equipment on board and maintaining it in a good working condition may one day save your life and the lives of your passengers.

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The content of the present publication will be highly appreciated by the people with the interest in navy fleet operations. It is made of the four studies provided by the professional naval historians from the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Canada, explaining how the multinational framework was created by the naval powers.

The details of the subject operations were analyzed by the recognized experts, who have offered a view of the navy fleets operating in Afghanistan, Yugoslavia, East Timor, and participating in the Gulf War. Their interoperability was fostered by the technology and trust, combined with the proper training, and are considered essential for the leaders of the modern American leaders, taking into account the fact that the inter-reliability of the navies. According to the professional reviews, you can look at this book two ways.

First of all, the issues addressed by the authors, are really timeless. The second deals with the people, power, platforms and partnerships – the so-called for “P”s so important to the Navy. Read this book if you are fond of the navy fleet operations, and we guarantee that you will benefit from the information presented in the book.

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Oil, fuels, lubricants, chemicals are the lifeblood of our modern industrial world. The cargo is pressurized but volatile. Within the hull of the ship, each tank is sealed to maintain the cargo quality and protect the crew, the vessel and the environment. But the cargo is also dynamic, its volume changes all the time, very obviously at loading and discharging, and less obviously through temperature changes and vaporization.

The volume of the tank is fixed, so changes in volume of liquids and gases within the tank must be accommodated, or they will translate into changes in pressure. Tank bulkheads are thin; they are designed to operate within tight parameters. Typically at commissioning they are tested with pressures of around a quarter-bar and a vacuum of less than 1/10 bar. The forces are massive, enough to disturb frames, bulkheads and decks, causing catastrophic failures, explosions, fire and pollution.

This video sheds light on the important aspects of handling pressures within the cargo tanks of the vessels. The information and knowledge gained when watching this video lesson carefully, will be of great practical use for the people working on board and can eventually result in prevention of the negative consequences caused by either under- or over-pressurization of cargo tanks.

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This publication will tell you about the battle of the human with the nature, namely with the Atlantic Ocean which has always been treated as the most dangerous one, and it still presents deadly challenge to the people crossing the oceans. The publication is truly delightful thanks to how the author chronicled the entire history of human attempts to cross the Atlantic Ocean from the very early times of navigation and up to the latest attempt to cross the Atlantic on the small fast boats.

The period in between includes the fascinating stories of the discoveries and slave trading, emigration and passenger cruise shipping, and of course wars. For people, this ocean has been a testing ground for the ship design and technologies. These design features and technologies are also dealt with in this book, together with all other important and interesting topics including but not limited to the small boats and yachts, early steam ships, unconventional crafts, winds, wild seas, currents, disasters and future prospects. The content is rich with information provided by the historians and experienced mariners and other shipping industry people, it is very reader-friendly and full of informative historical images.

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Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters

Narrow passageways and fairways in rivers and canals with a navigable depth and width comparable small in relation to the draft and the breadth of passaging ships are called restricted waters. The maneuverability of ships navigating through such restricted waters will be affected by high hydrodynamic effects that are different from those when ships navigate in broad and deep waters. These peculiar hydrodynamic effects are the shallow water effects, ship squat, interaction and bank effect. Let us have a look into the shallow water effect and ship squat.

When a ship proceeds, the surrounding water is displaced toward the sides and bottom, making a relative flow against the ship’s advance. Advancing hull submerges deeper compared to when she is dead in the water; this changes the trim because the water Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters - 2around the hull flows a little faster compared with the ship’s speed and the hydraulic pressure decreases. This phenomenon is called ship squat; but why does this take place?

In shallow water, when the bottom clearance is comparatively small, the ratio of the horizontal flow along both sides of the ship increases because the current towards the bottom is restricted. The hydraulic pressure along both sides of the hull decreases, as the nearer hull is to the surface flow, the faster the rate accelerates and the water level around the ship drops considerably. For this reason, sinkage of the bow and stern and subsequent trim change become larger in shallow water than in deep water. We should be careful that sinkage of the bow and change of trim become greater when a ship Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters - 3runs in shallow water.

Now let us see how the depth of water affects the turning capability of the ship in shallow water. We will have a look at the data of the turning capability of the large ships. Every curve indicates the tactical diameter of a specific ship by the multiples of the ship’s length. There is another graph illustrating how the turning track of the ship differs as the depth of the water changes. Note that in both cases, the ratio of the water depth to draft is changed with all other parameters remaining same. Thus, we can estimate the tactical diameter of a ship running in restricted water as the multiples of its length, although the presented data are taken from the test results of the large ships, this method can also be applied to smaller ships.

Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters - 4In view of the maneuverability of a ship, the depth of water also affects course stability like the effects on turning ability. We shall study the difference of the effects on course stability in deep water and in shallow water from the results of the zigzag maneuver tests. In the zigzag maneuver test a ship’s rudder starts to swing alternately to port and starboard when the ship is set on the steady straight course. At first, the rudder is put to starboard ten degrees until her head swings starboard ten degrees from her original course. Immediately after the ship’s head swings ten degrees starboard, the rudder is changed to port ten degrees until her head appoints ten degrees port from her original course.

This alternate rudder operations are repeated several times making a ship run in a zigzag course. On the picture you can see the results of the zigzag tests conducted in deep and shallow water. The required time to turn a ship’s head port or starboard to a settled angle in shallow water become shorter with a smaller overshoot angle than that in deep water. This means that we can expect quicker rudder effect in shallow water compared to that in deep water.Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters - 5

A well-remembered case among several cases reported in the past is that of a large passenger ship navigating in shallow water without reducing the speed that hit her bottom severely on the rocks. When running in restricted water, it is essential to keep enough underkeel clearance to avoid the deterioration of the maneuverability and touch bottom damage.

Underkeel clearance means the space between the ship’s bottom and the sea bed. It equals the value when the ship’s draft is subtracted from the sum of chart datum and Ships in Shallow and Restricted Waters - 6height of tide at that time. To maintain enough underkeel clearance, we have to consider the factors affecting the sinkage of the hull such as squat allowance, wave response allowance, possible error of chart datum, meteorological and oceanographic conditions, and other environmental conditions, and secure a safety allowance that eliminates ship handling difficulties.

The effects of sinkage and change of trim when a ship navigates in shallow water greatly affect the ship’s maneuverability. Enough knowledge of these effects in restricted waters will prevent accidents.

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