Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

Author(s)                 Matti Lepparanta, Kai Myrberg
Publisher Springer
Date 2009
Pages 378
Format pdf
Size 15.2 Mb

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   The Baltic Sea is deservedly treated as a unique basin - it is relatively shallow and small, and should rather be looked at a series of separate basins connected to the Atlantic Ocean only by means of the Danish Straits. The water exchange through the above mentioned series of straits is quite limited, and as a result of the positive balance of the fresh water, the water mass of the Baltic Sea is brackish, with its mean salinity being about seven per cent — 1/5 of the salinity of normal ocean waters. This elongated sea lies between maritime temperate and continental sub-Arctic climate zones. During the winter time, it is partly covered by ice, and at most severe winters it is completely frozen over. The variable coastal geo-morphology and the wide archipelago areas give the Baltic Sea its individual appearance. There are four major brackish water basins in the World Ocean, as further discussed in the book. The mean depth of the Black Sea is about 1200 metres and, owing to the strong salinity stratification and extremely slow renewal of the deep water, the water masses below 200 m are anoxic... In short, the publication will be very useful for the people involved in oceanographic and other activities in the area because of the information included by the authors.

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