LNG Transfer Arms and Manifold Draining, Purging and Disconnection Procedure

   The first introductory part of this SIGTTO-released document says that it has been written following numerous reports from the members of the present international organization, on the confusion and misunderstanding noticed between some ship and jetty operators; that is main reason why it has been released and please note that this document mainly pertains to terminals where rigid transfer arms are employed. The principal objective of this report was to disconnect the arms in such a way that would totally eliminate the possible risks of release of the liquid and, in addition, reduce the release of the cargo vapor to the environment to a practically achievable minimum. In order to safely and timely conduct this operation, it is critically important that a good and carefully thought out procedure has been established and that the communication between people on board and on shore is reliable and permanent, since both of them carry the responsibility for safety during subject operation. Among the most important aspects covered within this report there are drain system, isolation of valves, liquid removal, purging flammable vapors, verification, disconnection of the cargo manifolds etc. The annexes at the end provide case studies and example procedures...

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Guide to Planning Gas Trials for LNG Vessels

   The present document is mainly intended to provide all members of the Organization with the guidelines of the requirements that are applicable to the testing the LNG cargo handling systems. The scope of the publication shall be considered applicable to the designs featuring established membranes, SPB and spherical tanks. Note that the content shall not be extended to the prototypes and novel ship designs since they will most probably require some specific approach, for example additional testing. Moreover, this paper shall not be treated as a sort of operational procedures; it is rather an aid to preparation of a specification to be used during the gas trials. The authors have tried to address all items that have to be tested before the vessel is handed-over as well as the testing done after the delivery, at the time of loading of the first cargo. The figures there in the text of the document are indicative and it would be better to refer to the shipbuilder's/manufacturer's recommendations for figures for the particular ship. It is assumed that the trials are done by the shipbuilder before delivery, which is actually the common practice. The trials themselves are conducted to confirm the correct operation of the handling systems...

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ESD Arrangements and Linked Ship-Shore Systems for Liquefied Gas Carriers

   The core function of the cargo ESD system is to stop the flow of the cargo liquid/vapor in case of an emergency in order to bring the whole cargo handling system to a safe static condition. The present document released by SIGTTO was prepared to cover the emergency shutdown system arrangements for the gas carriers. The book has been arranged in three parts; the first part of the booklet covers the philosophy and some general requirements. the second part addresses the functions of the emergency shutdown system and associated safety systems. Finally, the last part of the book deals with the linked ESD systems. There are several appendices at the end of the book providing some useful supplementary information such as one on ESD processing, pneumatic ESD links, IGC Code requirements applicable to the ESD systems, and others. The publication was released due to the numerous concerns raised by the members of the organization about the interpretations of the functional requirements and is intended to encourage and promote the use of the linked systems; however, note that it shall not be treated as the technical specification for the ESD system design, it rather sets out the most important requirements to such systems...

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Gas Concentrations in the Insulated Spaces of Membrane LNG Carriers

   The first three decades of the LNG industry, i.e. until the end of the 1990s, were dominated by base load projects with long-term sale and purchase and associated shipping contracts, typically of 20 years duration. With such arrangements the project partners had an equity share or knowledge in all facets of the project, from gas gathering to gas distribution, including shipping. Furthermore, their technical staff had a detailed knowledge and familiarity with all the individual sections of the contractual chain. By the end of the 20th century, however, a short-term or "spot" market was starting to develop within the industry. In this market LNG vessels are hired on "spot" and "short-term" charters, with the charterer often having little or no knowledge of the history of such vessels. This has led to charterers and buyers and sellers of the cargoes drawing upon their oil industry experience and insisting on vetting these vessels prior to accepting them. This has occasionally raised questions about aspects of the vessels' operation and maintenance that partners in the original long-term projects had previously understood and accepted. One area, unique to the LNG trade, in which this has occurred is the maximum, operationally acceptable, gas concentration to be found in the insulation spaces of the cargo containment system of the membrane-type liquefied natural gas carriers, particularly those of older design.

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Safe Havens for Disabled Gas Carriers

   A ship in distress is usually in a condition where outside assistance is required to supplement the resources available on board to deal with the abnormal situation. A distress situation may have many facets ranging from disablement of power and/or steering to more fundamental damage to the hull or cargo system brought about by stress of weather, fire or other abnormal condition. Thus, the safest place for a ship in distress is in sheltered waters where the necessary external assistance can be brought to bear to bring the situation under control. Once under control, plans can then be made for the long term rectification of the situation, damage or other factors causing the distress situation. In many cases, the ability to move the vessel to a safe, sheltered location is the most important single contribution that a port or coastal authority can make but this should be done in the full understanding of the risks that attach to the damaged condition of the ship. Liquefied gas tankers have unique construction features and their cargoes have unique properties that set them apart from other classes of ship and other categories of hazardous cargo. This document describes the most important features of gas tankers and gas cargoes for those who may possibly become involved in seeking or granting a temporary refuge for such a ship, or be responsible for the contingency planning for such an event. This edition also includes details of actual incidents involving gas tankers.

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Standards and Guidelines for Natural Gas Fuelled Ship Projects

   The present booklet was prepared by the specialists of the Liquid Natural Gas Ship Fuel Safety Advisory Group and then published by SIGTTO together with SGMF on behalf of the Group. The twenty-two members of the Group possess huge professional experience in the LNG industry and include shipbuilders, marine class societies, vessel and terminal operators, makers, regulators and other parties. The primary objectives of the above stated Group is the promotion of the use of LNG as a safe marine fuel friendly to the environment, retaining meanwhile a level of safety that would be considered equivalent to the safety level of the large scale liquid natural gas transport industry as well as the identification of the key issues and providing necessary technical guidance and valuable relevant information basing on the professional experience of the members. They also try to provide required assistance to SIGTTO in developing of practical policies concerning the implementation of the natural gas as a fuel. This booklet does not have the standards themselves; it has been rather developed to provide the users with the list of the industry guides and recognized standards to be references so it will still be useful to the people in the shipping industry.

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LNG Bunkering Operations

   This training publication was prepared and released by the NTNU-Trondheim in order to establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations. The main economical and environmental benefits of using the LNG as marine fuel oil are widely recognized within the shipping industry. Today, construction of the infrastructure relating to the LNG bunkering is rapidly developing, responding to the constantly growing industry. Numerous ports are currently preparing to supply liquefied gas fuel; however, there are some uncertainties related to the process of bunkering as well as to the operational safety. Recently, there were some research works conducted to get the available LNG bunkering solutions standardized, including launching of the related ISO guideline and RP by DNV. Subject documents were mainly focused on the operational safety of bunkering, and on establishing of the safety zones; since very high risk is implied in the vicinity of the bunkering operations, and ferries (the main customers for the LNG fuel) have passengers most of the time, who are not allowed to present during such operations, the limitations imposed by the current regulations reduce the functionality and, consequently the competitiveness of LNG - that is why such fuel is a bit problematic for the ferry shipping companies...

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Liquified Petroleum Gas Tanker Practice

   The main purpose of the author of this publication was to provide all interested people with some sort of guide to safe and efficient transportation of the LPG and ammonia; up to now, the coverage of ammonia transportation has never been covered in any single book. We do hope that it will be very useful not only to the personnel directly involved in operating the gas carriers but also to the operating staff of the gas terminals where such products are handled. Though some treatment has been provided to the equipment used, this publication shall not be considered as the pure technical guide. The author tried to  examine the most important technical problems associated with the transportation and handling of the LPG/ammonia cargoes and cover some technical aspects of the running of LPG carriers. It shall be noted that at all stages the detail procedures to follow are depending upon the conditions under which the cargo will be loaded/discharged and carried - this can be done with the gas being fully-pressurized, semi-pressurized or fully-refrigerated (at regular atmospheric pressure). The book is arranged in three parts, first two deal with the pressurized and fully-refrigerated ships while the third part concentrates on the cargo calculations, safety matters and recommendations. The technical information is supplemented with the glossary of the terms used.

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