Current LNG transportation practice provides for pressure relief systems, designed with credit for the tank's insulation in order to to prevent gas cargo pressurization due to boil-off and fire, as per IMO IGC Code 8.5. However, it is uncertain to what extent any insulation degradation, in a fire situation, is taken into account in the design of PRV systems.
As foam plastic insulation materials are subject to possible melting, degradation and/or ignition at temperatures lower than might be achieved during such fire exposure, there is concern that the PRV systems may not be capable of relieving the vapor flows that would result from the increased boil-off due to partial or total insulation failure. This SIGTTO publication covers following matters - the origins of the IGC Code, fire scenarios, LNG carrier pressure relief systems, simplified reapplication of the Code for loss of insulation, heat transfer into the tank; time based heat transfer, response of insulation materials to heat, and others.
This is quite useful document providing necessary updates required to be taken into account to organize the transportation, storage and handling of the LNG cargoes in a safe way.
This presentation by SIGTTO applies to the valves installed on board liquid petroleum gas vessels, but it can provide guidance to such valves on LPG terminals, as well. It is intended to serve as a supplemental guide to be used together with the relevant standards and codes for LPG valves and shall not override them.
In this book such an important issues as valve design, specific design consideration for ESD (emergency shutdown) valves, valve testing, material requirements and codes and standards, have been addressed. The publication is mostly intended to provide necessary technical guidance to the designers and/or operators on the applicable general requirements for valves for LPG service, designed for an operating temperature ranging between -55 and +80 degrees Celsius.
Though the document was specifically developed to apply to LPG vessels, the provisions contained in it may be equally applied throughout the liquefied petroleum gas industry. Note, however, that this paper shall not override any national/international standards or codes. The appendix at the last part of the document provides considerations to be taken into account during the periods of construction and maintenance.
The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning.
The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry.
The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.
Here is a new edition of the LNG Custody Transfer Handbook reflecting the GIIGNL's technical understanding of the best practices. This handbook was prepared and released with the intention to serve as a reference manual assisting readers who want to better understand all equipment used by and procedures available to the GIIGNL members when determining the quantity of the energy of the gas which is being transferred between terminals and gas carrying ships; note that the present publication should not be treated as a technical specification/recognized standard.
At the same time, it shall be underlines that it was not the original intention of the authors of this handbook to provide detailed technical procedures of the ship-shore custody transfer of LNG; they rather tried to set out the practical requirements and issues to facilitate skilled operators to prepare suitable procedures for specific transfer operations.
The book starts with some introduction followed by general formulae and schemes of transfer as well as the instruments used, then there come parts that deal with the volume, temperature and vapor pressure measurement, sampling of gasified LNG, control devices and vaporizers, sampling procedures, gas analysis, calibration methods, density calculation and many other relevant technical info.
This presentation is dedicated to the transportation of liquefied gas. It contains an overview of some methods used for mitigating the risks and describes potential hazards of LNG and LPG, and summarizes various techniques to minimize their risks on the vessels, at terminals and jetties, combined operating practices and procedures, contingency planning. The presentation starts with some historical background.
The marine transportation of LPG started before the World War Two and was conducted in the pressurized containment and in relatively small quantities. Transportation of LNG started several years after that, in 1959. Today, there are more than thousand of gas carriers. The major hazard associated with the marine transportation of all liquefied gases is not their liquefied form but rather the vapor released. The heat is released, subsequently, that may ignite and cause fire.
With regard to the possible pollution of the marine environment, liquefied gases are neither toxic nor persistent so shall not be considered water pollutants; however, possible explosions was obviously cause lethal effects to various marine organisms - but in general the environmental hazard is less than the one of the crude oil spills...
The present publication was written and released by the TGE(standing for Tractebel Gas Engineering) professionals with the declared intention to provide all people who are concerned with transportation, handling and further storage of liquefied gases as well as some chemicals with all technical info that they might require in order to perform their professional duties in a safe and effective manner.
It contains all main physical and thermo-dynamic properties of the above mentioned liquefied gases and chemicals presented in the diagrams and data tables. The team of authors of the handbook hopes that it will serve as a useful guidebook for those who require the basic technical information.
There are thermo-dynamic properties of various liquids/gases, safety properties of these substances, diagrams presented in a half-logarithmic scale and provided with explanations and descriptions, diagrams summary and diagrams of pure substances for LNG and chemicals are also there together with the conversion factor tables. In short, this publication is recommended to any people who are directly or indirectly involved in any activities relating to the safe transporting and handling of all those substances.
The present booklet was prepared by the specialists of the Liquid Natural Gas Ship Fuel Safety Advisory Group and then published by SIGTTO together with SGMF on behalf of the Group. The twenty-two members of the Group possess huge professional experience in the LNG industry and include shipbuilders, marine class societies, vessel and terminal operators, makers, regulators and other parties.
The primary objectives of the above stated Group is the promotion of the use of LNG as a safe marine fuel friendly to the environment, retaining meanwhile a level of safety that would be considered equivalent to the safety level of the large scale liquid natural gas transport industry as well as the identification of the key issues and providing necessary technical guidance and valuable relevant information basing on the professional experience of the members.
They also try to provide required assistance to SIGTTO in developing of practical policies concerning the implementation of the natural gas as a fuel. This booklet does not have the standards themselves; it has been rather developed to provide the users with the list of the industry guides and recognized standards to be references so it will still be useful to the people in the shipping industry.
A ship in distress is usually in a condition where outside assistance is required to supplement the resources available on board to deal with the abnormal situation. A distress situation may have many facets ranging from disablement of power and/or steering to more fundamental damage to the hull or cargo system brought about by stress of weather, fire or other abnormal condition.
Thus, the safest place for a ship in distress is in sheltered waters where the necessary external assistance can be brought to bear to bring the situation under control. Once under control, plans can then be made for the long term rectification of the situation, damage or other factors causing the distress situation. In many cases, the ability to move the vessel to a safe, sheltered location is the most important single contribution that a port or coastal authority can make but this should be done in the full understanding of the risks that attach to the damaged condition of the ship. Liquefied gas tankers have unique construction features and their cargoes have unique properties that set them apart from other classes of ship and other categories of hazardous cargo.
This document describes the most important features of gas tankers and gas cargoes for those who may possibly become involved in seeking or granting a temporary refuge for such a ship, or be responsible for the contingency planning for such an event. This edition also includes details of actual incidents involving gas tankers.