This training publication was prepared and released by the NTNU-Trondheim in order to establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations. The main economical and environmental benefits of using the LNG as marine fuel oil are widely recognized within the shipping industry. Today, construction of the infrastructure relating to the LNG bunkering is rapidly developing, responding to the constantly growing industry.
Numerous ports are currently preparing to supply liquefied gas fuel; however, there are some uncertainties related to the process of bunkering as well as to the operational safety. Recently, there were some research works conducted to get the available LNG bunkering solutions standardized, including launching of the related ISO guideline and RP by DNV.
Subject documents were mainly focused on the operational safety of bunkering, and on establishing of the safety zones; since very high risk is implied in the vicinity of the bunkering operations, and ferries (the main customers for the LNG fuel) have passengers most of the time, who are not allowed to present during such operations, the limitations imposed by the current regulations reduce the functionality and, consequently the competitiveness of LNG - that is why such fuel is a bit problematic for the ferry shipping companies...
The main purpose of the author of this publication was to provide all interested people with some sort of guide to safe and efficient transportation of the LPG and ammonia; up to now, the coverage of ammonia transportation has never been covered in any single book. We do hope that it will be very useful not only to the personnel directly involved in operating the gas carriers but also to the operating staff of the gas terminals where such products are handled.
Though some treatment has been provided to the equipment used, this publication shall not be considered as the pure technical guide. The author tried to examine the most important technical problems associated with the transportation and handling of the LPG/ammonia cargoes and cover some technical aspects of the running of LPG carriers. It shall be noted that at all stages the detail procedures to follow are depending upon the conditions under which the cargo will be loaded/discharged and carried - this can be done with the gas being fully-pressurized, semi-pressurized or fully-refrigerated (at regular atmospheric pressure).
The book is arranged in three parts, first two deal with the pressurized and fully-refrigerated ships while the third part concentrates on the cargo calculations, safety matters and recommendations. The technical information is supplemented with the glossary of the terms used.
This training course has been intended to help people get better understanding on liquefied gases handling. It is actually the continuation of the training commencing with the Gas Tankers - Familiarization Course. It consists of fourteen chapters - Introduction; Actual Gas Cargoes; Compartment Systems; Freighting; Chemistry and Physics; Cargo Handling Equipment; Monitoring and Control; Safety and Environment; Gas Measurement; Cargo Pumps; Cargo Handling Routines; Cargo Calculation; Cooling Processes and associated calculations; Insulation; Heat Transfer.
It is critically important training for everyone involved in any way in marine transportation of various liquefied gases, and also in operation/maintenance of related machinery, and calculations. During the period 1984-1992 some serious limitations to the STCW became apparent. People did feel that some of its requirements were vague and left to the sole discretion of the Parties, while others declared the problems with no any IMO oversight of compliance with the requirements, limited PSC, lack of clear competence standards, etc. It does make sense for personnel dealing with running the gas tankers to go through the materials of this course.
The legal publication officially released by the SIGTTO, standing for the "Society of International Gas Tanker Terminal Operators Ltd". The main body of this document has been arranged in seventeen sections called articles. The first articles in the opening one and it addresses name, offices and definitions, while the second article is titled "Purpose, powers and activities" including prohibited activities. The third articles deals with shares, covering share capital, registration of members, transfer and purchase of shares.
The next article deals with membership and eligibility including associate membership, admission, expulsion. Then there comes an articles on meetings of members covering the quorum, voting matters, notices and representation. The following article "Assessed capacity" concentrates on computation and records of assessed capacity. The remaining articles deal with dues and assessments, officers, directors, working committees, accounts and audit, indemnification, alteration of bye-laws, interpretation, winding up, seal of the company, and forms A and B. Subject blank forms are contained there at the end of the document. The must-have one and a good reference.
The core function of the cargo ESD system is to stop the flow of the cargo liquid/vapor in case of an emergency in order to bring the whole cargo handling system to a safe static condition. The present document released by SIGTTO was prepared to cover the emergency shutdown system arrangements for the gas carriers.
The book has been arranged in three parts; the first part of the booklet covers the philosophy and some general requirements. the second part addresses the functions of the emergency shutdown system and associated safety systems. Finally, the last part of the book deals with the linked ESD systems. There are several appendices at the end of the book providing some useful supplementary information such as one on ESD processing, pneumatic ESD links, IGC Code requirements applicable to the ESD systems, and others.
The publication was released due to the numerous concerns raised by the members of the organization about the interpretations of the functional requirements and is intended to encourage and promote the use of the linked systems; however, note that it shall not be treated as the technical specification for the ESD system design, it rather sets out the most important requirements to such systems...
The present document is mainly intended to provide all members of the Organization with the guidelines of the requirements that are applicable to the testing the LNG cargo handling systems. The scope of the publication shall be considered applicable to the designs featuring established membranes, SPB and spherical tanks.
Note that the content shall not be extended to the prototypes and novel ship designs since they will most probably require some specific approach, for example additional testing. Moreover, this paper shall not be treated as a sort of operational procedures; it is rather an aid to preparation of a specification to be used during the gas trials. The authors have tried to address all items that have to be tested before the vessel is handed-over as well as the testing done after the delivery, at the time of loading of the first cargo.
The figures there in the text of the document are indicative and it would be better to refer to the shipbuilder's/manufacturer's recommendations for figures for the particular ship. It is assumed that the trials are done by the shipbuilder before delivery, which is actually the common practice. The trials themselves are conducted to confirm the correct operation of the handling systems...
There have been so many publications about the carriage of the first cargoes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) onboard the Methane Pioneer in 1959. But what of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a gas ship cargo which predates LNG? When were the pioneering LPG cargoes carried and how did this important seaborne trade develop? In this tribute to the first gas carriers, Robin Gray, former SIGTTO General Manager, sheds light on the early days of the less well-known part of the gas shipping industry and on the role played by one particular shipyard in the North East of England.
This paper by Robin Gray, former general manager of SIGTTO, provides some historical background, touching the post-war development, addresses the major conversions of the vessels and famous conversion projects, applicable rules and patterns, liability insurance and cargo familiarity, material used for the construction and insulation of the cargo tanks, integrated gas distribution, propane loading problems, local gas trials, ethylene-related issues, training provided to the officers, fire protection tests, cooldown tanks, welding problems etc. Have a look into this document since the information contained in it is useful and practical.
In the last 35 years a high number of serious casualties have occurred involving fires in the cargo containment system of liquefied gas carriers, whilst the vessels have been in shipyards. Many of these have resulted in multiple fatalities, environmental damage and serious financial loss to the ship-owner.
It should also be borne in mind that it is not unknown for ships to be arrested and owners superintendents, or representatives, to be held in custody for lengthy periods whilst accidents are investigated. In 1995, the SIGTTO Secretariat undertook research into the subject and published the results at the Balikpapan Panel Meeting in September 1995. At the time this was thought to be sufficient to alert the industry to the problem, but a recent enquiry has shown that since September 1995 there have been 7 reported incidents resulting in 7 fatalities and the constructive total loss of a vessel undergoing repair.
This guide has been prepared by SIGTTO in order to draw attention to the problem and propose risk mitigation measures to those responsible for managing these activities. Whilst this safety guide was being prepared, in July 2001, a fire occurred on a 3200 m3 semi-pressurised LPGC at a repair yard in Slovenia. The fire, which burned for over 2 hours, damaged the structure and insulation of No.1 cargo tank and was caused by hot work during steel-work renewal in the double bottoms. There were no fatalities or injuries.