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Such had been the pace of change in the nineteenth century that by the 1880s fleets were made up with ships of very different designs, armament and capabilities. Standardisation came with Sir William White's Royal Sovereign class, so powerfully armed and armoured that only another battleship could oppose them. The principal armament consisted of four 13.5'' guns, with two of which being mounted in each of two barbettes; these were armoured structures containing the handling arrangements for ammunition and cordite supply. These were fixed and only the guns themselves rotated; however, they had to be trained fore and aft at a fixed elevation to be reloaded and the gun's crew were exposed to enemy fire in action. The secondary armament included ten 6'' quick-firing guns intended to pour rapid fire into an opponent. Action was expected to take place at close quarters with battle-practice ranges as close as two thousand yards considered normal in the 1890s and ramming was regarded as a viable tactic. All British battleships were fitted with four submerged tubes able to fire 18'' torpedoes on the beam and it was the threat of enemy torpedoes that caused longer-range gunfire to be developed so that in battle ships might remain outside their range. Smaller 14'' torpedoes were also carried to arm steam picket boats for attacks against enemy ships in harbour...