This technical code was prepared to address the conditions pertaining to the UK and; note that local conditions may also necessitate some modifications. The reference is actually made to BS not ES due to the most relevant European Standards being in the pre-standard form. The user shall apply some engineering judgement to properly determine if the recommendations of this code shall be followed and, if so, when they shall not.
The present code is intended for use by the industry engineers having some basic knowledge of the subject. This standard consists of the several parts, first one is the code of practice for general criteria, followed by design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins - design of drydocks, locks, shipways, shipbuilding berths, shiplifts, dock and lock gates - code of practice design of fendering, mooring systems, dredging and land reclamation - design of inshore moorings, floating structures, and breakwaters. Note that the offshore structures are not covered by this Code.
Same applied to the structures in inland waters. Additionally, note that this Code does not provide any guidance on the financial criteria though it is understood that proper economic evaluation shall be made for each project associated with the engineering criteria addressed by this Code.
The classic British Standard related to one of the most reliable and popular methods of nondestructive evaluation. The chapters making this document introduce the reader to the magnetic particle flaw detection, define the scope and provide the references and basic definitions, address the equipment used during the inspection, detecting media, all associated procedures (preparation, magnetization, current flow/threading bar or cable/rigid coil techniques, flexible cable technique, magnetic flow, induced current flow techniques, viewing and recording of indications, proper reporting, demagnetization and, finally, cleaning.
The Appendixes at the end of the publication provide some necessary supplementary data. In fact, the application of this method of nondestructive evaluation has already been described within several BS standards over the past years and it was considered necessary to prepare a separate basic standard that would address this particular method. And this is how the present BS 6072 standard has been developed and subsequently released - it provides people with a very detailed info on this method; however, we have to mention that some slight variation in the regular technique might be required for a number of particular applications.
The WPS referred to in the present British Standard, are required in order to provide a well defined basis for planning of any construction operations that would include welding, as well as for quality control during welding, evaluation of the established weld seams, assessment of the welding connections etc.
Welding itself is considered a very special process in the terminology of quality system standards - such standards would usually imply that special processes are to be carried out in full accordance with the written WPS, i.e. welding procedure specifications. Any possible deviations, as well as distortions and other imperfections, can be evaluated by means of the various nondestructive testing (NDT) methods on the newly established weld seam.
The special problem is constituted by the metallurgical deviations, because today's level of NDT technology does not allow for the nondestructive evaluation of the mechanical properties - this necessitated the establishment of a completely new set of applicable rules for approval of the WPS prior to the its release to actual production. There are nine parts in this standard, covering the general rules applicable to fusion welding, welding of the aluminum and aluminum alloys, WPS for arc welding, various welding procedure tests applicable approval of the standard WPS, pipeline welding, offshore applications etc.
This standard provides necessary requirements to runway beams constructed using the rolled steel sections. Suitability of some other materials might be considered, but the designed must note the particular mechanical properties of the materials proposed for use.
It shall be underlined that the main obligation of the tester is to get the actual runway tested as necessary; under no circumstances shall he himself that the structures and associated supports seem suitable for all loads they will be take. Sometimes, cases this may not be practicable; it will then be the responsibility of the purchaser, in consultation with the competent person, to satisfy the tester that the structure is suitable. The runway beams, i.e. constructions on which trolleys move, shall be of suitable size and adequate stress - they shall also have an even running surface.
The beams shall be adequately supported/suspended and, of course, they shall be capable of being duly maintained. When calculating stresses in the beams, the lifted load shall be taken into account as necessary, along with the weight of the beam and of the lifting appliance, force on the hand chain, and any other loads that are superimposed...
The present British Standard no. BS EN 10079:1993 fully dedicated to the popular definitions that are applicable to the various steel products, and superseding the previous version BS 6562-1:1986. For Normative references refer to the Annex A & B. Steel in the liquid state ready for pouring and obtained from the melting of raw material.
A distinction is made between following: — liquid steel for pouring into ingot moulds or for continuous casting; — liquid steel for castings. Here is the arrangement of this document: scope - normative references - liquid steel - ingots and semi-finished products - flat and long products - other products - steel products and associated standards - references, etc. There is a brief trilingual vocabulary provided - it allows reader to find get the terms translated from English to German and French languages.
There is a number of figures for illustration, such as the illustration of typical profile sheet and of typical sandwich panel, typical sheet piling, typical bearing piling, typical mining frame sections, typical heavy sections etc. Apart from that, numerous links have been provided to some other standards. Highly recommended regulatory paper for everyone wishing to have the idea of the European nomenclature of the steel products.
The present BS standard consists of six major parts. The first part is somewhat introductory and it addresses the general technical conditions of delivery; such conditions would normally be applicable to all steels - scope/normative references/terms & definitions/classification & designation/info to be supplied by the buyer/manufacturing process/requirements/ inspection/preparation of samples/test methods/marking, labelling and packaging/complaints/options/evaluation of conformity, while the other parts of the document deal with the TDC for non-alloy steels, normalized rolled and thermomechanical weldable fine grain structural steels, plus steels having improved characteristics of the atmospheric corrosion resistance, and flat products rolled from high yield strength steels in the tempered/quenched condition.
In general, this standard was released to specify the requirements for long and flat rolled structural steel products; however, it does not cover tubes and hollow sections. In addition, it is not applicable to steel products intended for general structural applications, and to coated products. The steels dealt with in the present document are to be used in welded/bolted/riveted structures.
Quite clear, this British Standard deals with the classification and definition of steel grades. It was prepared by Technical Committee ECISS/TC6 and replaces the standard EN 10020:1988 which is now considered obsolete. The document consists of the four chapters - scope - term and definition - classification by chemical composition - classification of main quality classes.
The first two parts provide some standard definitions that are in use by BS EN. The part dealing with the chemical composition tells readers about the alloy contents, definition of alloy classes, stainless and non-alloy steels, as well as of the other alloy steels. The last part describes the non-alloy quality and special steels, stainless steels, other alloy steels and allow quality and special steels from the classification viewpoint. The table in the booklet describes boundary between alloy and non-alloy steels (specified elements vs limit values).
Another table is dedicated to the weldable fine grained alloy steels. The standard takes into account all latest developments in the iron and steel industry as well as recent progress in EU standardization so will definitely be useful and practical.
This standard was prepared under the direction and guidance provided by the Iron and Steel Standards Policy Committee and specifies weldable structural steels for use in construction and in maintenance work tor offshore structures. The standard is adapted from BS 4360. It has been drafted as a procurement specification with the sole intention to be used by te buyers and actually anyone who acts on his behalf to procure materials for offshore structures designed to operate in the European Sector.
It specifies a more limited range of steel forms and grades than BS 4360 and provides for enhanced properties in some steel grades in order to reflect the needs of the European offshore industry. It also incorporates a number of options which the purchaser may invoke to meet demanding requirements in particular applications. The editorial style and format of BS 4360 has been utilized.
The new grade designations given in appendix H of BS4360 : 1986, and which will be adopted in the next full revision of that standard have been used but with an amended form of sub-grade suffix. The requirements of this standard apply to the offshore structures that have been specifically designed and built for operation in the European sector in general and North Sea, in particular.