SHIP TO SHIP TRANSFERS — CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE TO REVERSE LIGHTERING OPERATIONS
|D O W N L O A D|
The present publication developed and officially reversed by one of the most respected entities in the modern international maritime shipping industry, will provide all necessary instructions for the ship-to-ship, or STS, operations including valuable guidelines related to the reverse lightering, or topping-off. This is the operation where a laden ship, which would usually be an Aframax or Suezmax tanker, is being brought close to the partially laden vessel, normally ULCC or VLCC to transfer the cargo from smaller vessel to a larger one.
This is what differs the reverse lightering from the other ship to ship transfer operation where the maneuvering ship is ballasted. It is very important to pay all due attention to the fender selection as it becomes critical for the provision of the safety of STS operations. In addition to that, all aspects shall be thoroughly considered including, but not limited to the stand-off distances and energy absorption.
The publication is quite compact but it contains all necessary information. First two sections are covering the procedures to be followed when selecting the fender, and characteristics of the energy absorption by the fender. Three other sections are dealing with the approach velocities, availability of the equipment used in the course of the operations, and stand-off distances mentioned above.
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