The seas are commonly subjected to the pollution in different forms. In the text of the relevant UN Convention of 1982 the marine pollution has been defined as the one involving either direct or indirect introduction of pollutants resulting in the negative effects to marine life. The present volume contains the results of the scientific assessment of the pollution and covers the general marine pollution by both organic and inorganic pollutants.
The content was developed on the basis of the valuable contributions provided by the group of the recognized and experienced professionals in the field. Starting with the overview of the general marine pollution in the different ocean zones, the content then proceeds to the black tide issue, and oxygenation of the waters. After that, the causes and subsequent effects of the harmful blooms are dealt with.
Note that there is a separate color plate section providing the supplementary information in a very colorful and easy to understand way due to the illustrations. The volume will provide interested readers with the very latest research of the ocean pollution matters and as such will be useful to those dealing with the subject problem.
The publication was released to present the ongoing trends in the scientific researches related to the underwater acoustic wave inverse/direct problems. We consider the "ocean-seabed" system an acoustic wave guide, and in fact this volume is the only one treating the inverse problems. The authors of the title treat the acoustic wave propagation for different seabed types and consider the direct/inverse problems in realistic environments of the ocean.
They have emphasized the computation of the Green's functions and have added some completely new material relating to the poro-elastic and elastic types of seabed. They have also addressed numerous areas of the practical interest mainly relating to the underwater acoustic imaging, covering the ecological cleanup and surveys, means of protection of the open-water harbours, proper maintenance of the offshore oil-and-gas enterprises, together with other relevant and important areas of concern. It shall be treated as an excellent math treatise.
The book will be very useful because of the information contained - note that the waveguide inversion problems are not actually addressed in too many reference books and this book is also intended to fill the gap in the information with this regard, with particular attention paid by the authors to the forward scattering problem.
This publication was written to provide readers with the information related to storm risk assessment; the authors have focused on sandy and cliff coasts in connection with the sea level rise caused by the change in climate and also littoral transformation. The impacts of storms have been examined through the matrixes dealing with the various physical characteristics as well as the different ecological resources, in addition to the other factors concerned.
The methodology applied by the authors of this volume has been thoroughly described and also tested in relation to the coastal areas mentioned in the title, namely Cartagena, located in the Caribbean Sea, and Cadiz on the Atlantic coast. Both of these areas have been considered important due to the huge flow of tourists.
The chapters of the book are describing the above approach and exploring three main types of variables, namely ones that contribute to the erosion induced by storm, dynamic variables determining the resilience to the erosion, and, finally, the vulnerable targets that are normally arranged in three groups. The maps that are created on the basis of the approximation will be helpful when determining the causes as well as processes and potential consequences of the processes.
The recent developments in the field of the offshore wind power engineering are one of the most important issues of today. It is driven mainly by the demand for the new efficient and eco-friendly sources of electrical power and the main idea is to avoid using fossil fuels. However, should the offshore generation of the electricity using wind turbine installations become a wide-spread reality; there will definitely be serious problems to overcome.
Among most critical aspects to considered there are reliability of such installations as well as their longevity and ready availability at the market. Then, we will need to pay close attention to the cost effectiveness that will be required in order to reach the above mentioned availability and longevity of the wind turbines forming an essential part of any wind energy installation, since it will play a critical role in improving the lifecycle costs of the turbine and eventually determine the future of this emerging sector of the energy industry. Due to the number of important areas covered in the pages of this publication it will be greatly appreciated by all people with the interest in the renewable energy, ecology and similar disciplines.
One of the most interesting and historically valuable publications on marine science and meteorology, noting the original release date, which dates back as far as to the middle of the nineteenth century, this one shall definitely be treated as a piece of classics. The meteorology has always been considered a very complex subject. Though so many books have been issued for the past century on the meteorology, the mechanical theory of storms has only been addressed in only few of them.
However, taking into account the importance of this subject, it requires close attention, and this is what the idea of the author of this publication was. The main content of the volume is arranged in six sections. The first section introduces reader to the theory of navigation, dynamical law of equilibrium, formation of vortices, Hutton's theory, Redfield's theory, and other relevant topics.
The list of topics covered in the pages of this volume is too long to be presented in this short text, we just want to recommend this book to all people interested in this subject due to the truly impressive coverage of the topics combined with the detailed and clear explanations making the learning process easy.
The coast lines of the world divide sea from land and are deservedly treated as the geo-environments absolutely unique in composition and in the processes that affect them. People have been raising constructions throughout the whole history of mankind at these intersections of the ocean and land. Even though the coastlines were originally used for the commercial and naval purposes, the past decades have shown significantly increased activity relating to the tourism and recreation.
The development of the coastlines is currently resulting in a serious conflicts with the natural processes. The present textbook on coastal engineering is intended to assist readers with getting better understanding of the above mentioned coastal processes and help them develop the effective strategies on coping with the erosion taking place at the shorelines.
The material of the book is divided in four major parts providing a general overview of the modern coastal engineering, giving a consideration of coastal zones covering the storm surges and water waves etc., containing the productive discussion of the coastal responses and depicting various applications, for example coastal armoring, proper shoreline management, mitigation of the coastline erosion and others.
The present volume contains the proceedings of the joint meeting of the geological groups, first group dealing with the marine studies and the second one engaged in petroleum geochemistry. The materials included in the publication have all been arranged in three major parts.
The first two parts of the publication are mainly addressing the environment of the rocks containing oil with the main emphasis being made on the technical concepts and established methods of working with the organic sediments that are normally generated in the course of the so-called anoxic events.
Here you will find the information about the role that the source rocks play in the exploration of petroleum, pyrite formations, characteristics of the rocks, distribution of the source rocks, formation of the deposits, organic sedimentation etc.
The third part of the book provides statistical and graphical data in connection with this and is also dealing with the organic geochemistry and geography, covering different geographical regions and all aspects considered important enough to be included in the volume by the author who compiled the book. The publication will present practical interest and use to the people involved in the offshore exploration of the hydrocarbons.
Nowadays, marine debris that are discharges from the vessels and other source, including the trash as well as the lost fishing gear, is seriously contributing to the ongoing spoiling of the beaches and fouling of the seafloor and surface waters; in addition to that, it causes significant harm to the marine mammals and other negative effects.
Regretfully, the existing domestic laws and international conventions that are intended to provide the due control of the discharge of marine debris, have not been too successful, and one of the reasons for that was that the laws provided little incentive to the changes in the behavior.
The authors of the present publication have made an attempt to properly identify the established ways of reduction of the wastes, decrease in the disposal of waste at marine ports, and also to strengthen the whole regulatory framework towards a zero-discharge in the environment of the sea. The progress in this field will mainly depend on a commitment to the sustained funding and also on the appropriate support.
The relevant authorities should target research in order to get to the sound understanding of the sources, associated fates and potential impacts of marine debris by means of the planning and prioritization of the related activities, and also provide the required support to the establishment of the rigorous protocols allowing to monitor at a broad variety of scales.