Liquefied Gases Handling


This officially released SIGTTO publication is intended to provide required guidance to the cargo strainer installations on board tankers carrying LPG cargoes. For many years, these strainers have not been in use since until now they have not been considered necessary equipment.

The reason for that was that the LNG cargo used to be treated as the "clean" one with the filtration commonly limited to the strainers fitted in the loading line at the time of the new construction, i.e. at the shipyard. The contamination on board the vessel was provided by good housekeeping combined with the regular visual checks during the installation and commissioning of the line, together with the post-delivery inspections at regular intervals.

However, the installation of the strainers is now a requirement to be complied with, noting the significant role they can play in preventing the pollution and maintaining the clean transfer of cargo - this is one of the most important parts of the process that is a key element in preventing damage to the terminal equipment as well as any serious contamination.

This document will provide readers with the recommendations that have been developed on the basis of the practical experience related to the different types of strainers, their location and performance..

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At the INTERTANKO meeting held back in 2015, the Council of the Organization made a decision to expand their services so that they cover the demands of the constantly growing involvement of the Members with the interest of the liquid gas industry. The first meeting of the newly founded Gas Tanker Committee was held in the following year.

At that time, the Members shared their concerns and ideas relating to the commingling/blending of the subject cargoes when carried on board their vessels, considering the information gap and lack of the proper guidance experienced today. The present publication contains the results for the working group activity, starting with the examination of the legality of conducting blending of the LPG on board ship, as per the applicable SOLAS regulation.

The main reasons for blending cargo has been addressed together with the identification of the principles of blending and hazards commonly involved with the process. The book provides valuable guidance which shall be referred to every time the blending/commingling is carried out. Moreover, the commercial implications have also been dealt with, taking into account their ever growing importance.

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A good training officially provided by SIGTTO for those involved in maritime transportation of liquid gases. The students, who have successfully completed the lesson, should be considered as having enough knowledge of the common types of hazards associated with such activity, including flammability, toxicity, low pressure and temperatures, chemical burns and others. The first in the list, flammability, is treated as the most dangerous one.

That is the reason why the ship designers pay so much of their attention to arrange for the most effective containment of the transported cargoes in order to limit the amount of gases that escape to the atmosphere. In addition to that, the vessels and ports are in possession of the relevant design specifications for the electrical arrangements ensuring elimination of any ignition sources in the hazardous areas.

All gases that are carried in bulk on board gas carriers, except for the chlorine, are of flammable nature, and the vapors are easily ignited. This does not relate to the ammonia requiring higher energy of ignition. The fires that normally follow the leakage of ammonia are less likely… The lesson will provide all essential information that shall be possessed by everyone dealing with marine gas transportation in a safe manner.

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The present document was developed and officially released by SIGTTO in order to offer readers, including the operators and designers of the vessels engages in marine transportation of the liquid natural gases, the professional guidelines on the general requirements that are applicable. Note that we also have the similar publication dealing with selection of the valves for the LPG, or liquid petroleum gas, application.

The valves used in such services will be designed for the operating temperature range from 80 to minus 180 degrees Celsius. The content of the document will be of particular use for the storage of the LNG products and their transportation; however, it will be equally useful to the representatives of the other industries involving LNG. There are specific requirements applying to the design of the valves to make sure that they will work safely and efficiently in the cryogenic systems.

The authors of the publication intended to explain the essentials of the design and subsequent testing of the valves for cryogenic applications, with the technical requirements paid due attention. All of the major and commonly referred standards and technical codes have been listed at the end of the document. Though very compact, the booklet will still be of great assistance.

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The LPG carriers are ships intended for marine transportation of the gases in the liquid form of substance which would otherwise be a gas, should the ambient conditions be normal (temperature and atmospheric pressure). The subject gases can be toxic, flammable or both toxic and flammable, so they shall be paid ultimate attention and dealt with caution.

In addition to their toxicity and flammability, the main hazards associated with the carriage of the liquid gases are normally the vapor release and the effect that the low temperatures have on the ship structure and personnel on board. This introductory document was prepared by the professional and experienced captain willing to share his practical experience. It is absolutely recommended to all crew members working on board vessels carrying such cargoes.

Starting with the general information about the characteristics of the liquid gases based on the API approach, the publication then tells you about the relevant regulatory framework, the IGC Code in the first turn. All classes of the liquid gas carriers have been covered in the document, with the attention paid to the advantages and disadvantages of each class of vessels. Numerous photographs supplement the text wherever it is required to provide visual aids.

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The natural gas are there in the rock reservoirs deep below the surface of the Earth and therefore under high pressure. They can exist being dissolved in the water or hydrocarbons, or in the free state. Same is the way they are produced from the geological formations. There are three quantities of the gases, namely their temperature, pressure and temperatures, and three major rules governing their behavior, i.e. Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law, and Gay-Lussac’s Law.

The liquid natural gas trade chain starts with the exploration and production, treatment and liquefaction process, followed by its transportation, and concluded with the storage at final location and regasification. This compact document provides all information that everyone involved in maritime transportation of the LNG should be aware of in order to perform his or her duties in a safe manner.

To do that, they are definitely in need of having a good knowledge of the nature of gases and their technical characteristics, since the failure to know and understand same will eventually result in the unsafe working practice on board, leading to the dangerous and often even catastrophic consequences to the humans on board, vessel and the environment.

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The materials contained in the pages of this compact yet informative report were provided by the Department of Energy of United States in cooperation with the NARUC, standing for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. The publication gives some introductory information that shall be known by anyone engaged in the LNG industry in any way, including, of course, the maritime transportation of the liquefied gases.

Nowadays, the natural gas plays a critically important role in the energy supply, significantly contributing in the national environmental and economic plans. As we know, the liquefaction process has been developed and widely implemented in order to allow for easier transportation of the natural gas. Without it, the gas would never get delivered to the destination ports.

The main emphasis in the document has been placed on the United States; however the technical information can easily be applied elsewhere. The authors explain the growing demand of the country in the natural gas, current status of its imports, components making up the LNG chain, essentials of the natural gas production and liquefaction; of course, the safety and security aspects have also been covered in detail.

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The documented is prepared in the form of presentation and will be good for people entering the industry. The author covers the important areas in detail, while keeping the amount of text to a minimum, concentrating on the visual aids such as the illustrations and schemes. First of all, the basic information is given about the hydrocarbon industry and the role played by LNG.

Then, we proceed to the LNG chain and plant overview, and the offshore industry. There are slides devoted to the gasification process, composition of the natural gas, schematics of the gas treatment plant, as well as the typical liquid petroleum gas recovery in the baseload LNG plant, cascade cooling and the associated hazards.

The cryogenics has been dealt with, together with the domestic and industrial refrigeration, properties of the refrigerants, together with the technical aspects such as the insulation used, low temperature embrittlement of the materials, thermal stress, piping and pressure profile. The storage and transportation of the LNG are handles within the separate slides, and there are so many other interesting and important areas covered. The document can be used as a ready-to-use presentation when explaining the basics of the LNG.

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