OIL SPILL RISKS FROM TANK VESSEL LIGHTERING
|Author(s)||National Research Council|
|Publisher||National Academy Press|
|D O W N L O A D|
It is well known that the lightering a very cost-effective and efficient method of delivering crude oil from various locations to refineries all over the world and an excellent method of transportation of petroleum products. As the huge supertankers often used to transport oil, are too deep and too wide to enter ports, lightering appears to be the most practical option.
Of course, the oil spills are the real danger while carrying out lightering operations and everyone has to take care of marine pollution. This study sheds some light on the basic aspects of safety during lightering operations. As a common shipping practice, the lightering was first emerged in United States waters, particularly in the Mexican Gulf, more than thirty years ago. Historically, the safety of lightering operations has almost never been questioned, despite of the obvious risks arising when the liquid cargo is being transferred between two ships, underway or drifting, or anchored. But, congressional attention has been drawn to the lightering operations in recent years, by the general public concerns about the marine oil spills and environment pollution.
This publication contains some kind of lightering primer with the very basic information, it also tells the reader about the lighering ships, systems and environment, describes the most important procedures and practices, and explains how the human factor may affect.
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