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The Aral Sea Environment

   Introduction; History of exploration and investigation; Paleogeographical history; The Aral Sea under natural conditions; Socio-economic conditions before 1960; Reasons for the socio-economic and environmental crisis; Reginal climate variability; Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers and their deltas; Physical oceanography and chemistry of the Large Aral Sea; Satellite monitoring of the region; Sea level variability; Ice conditions from satellite and historical observations; Biological diversity; Relevance of the archaeology to water level and climate changes; Creeping environmental disasters.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 584 | | Comments (0)

The Open Sea - The World of Plankton

   There is a very simple fact about the sea which makes its inhabitants seem even more remote from us than can entirely be accounted for by their being largely out of sight. To make my point allow me to imagine a world just a little different from our own. Suppose for a moment that we live in a country which is bounded on one side by a permanent bank of fog. It is a grey-green vapour, denser even than that often known as a London particular, and it has a boundary as definite as the surface of a cloud so that it is like a curtain hanging from the sky to meet the ground; we cannot enter it without special aids except for a momentary plunge and as quickly out again for breath. We can see into it for only a very little way, but what we do see is all the more tantalizing because we know it must be just a glimpse—a tiny fraction—of all that lies beyond. We find it has life in it as abundant as that of our own country-side, but so different that it might be life from another world. No insects dwell beyond the barrier, but other jointed-legged creatures take their place. Unfamiliar floating forms, like living parachutes with trailing tentacles, show their beauty and all too quickly fade from view; then sometimes at night the darkness may be spangled with moving points of light—living sparks that dart and dance before our eyes. Occasionally gigantic monsters, equal in size to several elephants rolled into one. blunder through the curtain and lie dying on our land...

 

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 832 | | Comments (0)

Modelling of Marine Systems

   Mathematical models of marine systems developed in the recent years very extensively. Such models were either research models, which aimed at a better understanding of the systems' dynamics, or they were management models designed to assist the administration of water resources and the fight against pollution. Initially, the models concentrated on physical, chemical or biological processes according to their particular concerns. Then, the increased threat on the environment requiring a more thorough understanding of ecosystems, the models were extended, in an effort to overlap the frontiers between the disciplines and include imperatives from other fields. Exhaustive multidisciplinary models were conceived which were sometimes praised sometimes criticized for their ambition. The prodigious development of numerical techniques and computing facilities, recently, supported the idea that such ambitious models were not unrealistic and could provide a convenient framework for the rational assemblage of the so far dispersed partial models. The book consists of three major parts covering concepts and techniques of marine modelling, the present state of marine modelling, and reports of the working groups and recommendations for future work, correspondingly.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 921 | | Comments (0)

Marine Ecological Geography - Theory and Experience

   Ecological and geographic info model of marine basin; Mathematical modeling of marine ecosystems - geo- and eco-aspects; H2S zone in the open Black Sea - mechanisms of formation, dynamics, evolution and present state; Seasonal H2S zones of the NW Black Sea shelf - their dynamics, nature and prediction; Gas production on the NW shelf of the Black Sea - scales, geo- and eco-conditions, consequences, forecast; Geo- and eco-assessment of coastal zone on the Russian Black Sea aquatory as a mariculture development region; Geo- and eco-information model - "Portrait" of the Black Sea Kerch Strait; Wreck of the tanker Volgoneft-139, Kerch Strait (November 11, 2007); Total conclusions.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 696 | | Comments (0)

Surveying and Charting of the Seas

   It is the author's intention that this book serve various purposes, i.e. to give the reader an overall view of the many aspects of the art and science of hydrographic and other types of surveying and charting, while also going deeper into those subjects which seem to require additional attention, or are in need of a more modern approach. Also, where deemed desirable, new subjects have been introduced. At the same time it was considered a necessity not to overlook simpler methods and less complicated equipment, as not every survey vessel has the latest electronic data processing equipment on board with all instruments recording on line. Writing this book has also been done in the hope it will assist hydrographic and other marine surveyors who are faced with the difficult task of starting an efficient hydrographic office and an effective surveying service for their country and who in addition very often have to give guidance to young survey officers, while not having at their disposal the latest sophisticated data collection and processing devices. According to the author there is a need for a treatise which not only discusses the latest equipment and methodologies, but which covers also less complicated instruments and methods to be used in circumstances regularly occurring in daily life on board. As was already said, there are quite a number of handbooks and manuals in which advanced procedures are described related to the science of surveying and charting. What is also needed - and is not overlooked in this book - is advice to the surveyor or hydrographer who urgently needs reliable charts, but who is not (yet) in a position to purchase or to use advanced instruments or equipment. A similar predicament may present itself on board of a naval vessel not especially equiped to carry out hydrographic survey work but, nonetheless, finding itself in need of fast operational surveying in the area of its activities. Also merchant navy officers may, from time to time, be confronted with the need to know more about the water they intend to navigate.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 997 | | Comments (0)

White Sea - Its Marine Environment and Ecosystem Dynamics Influenced by Global Changes

   This book addresses the contemporary problems of the White Sea and its basin, with special emphasis on the interactions between the marine and socio-economic environments. To investigate the impacts of regional and global change, field observations, remote sensing, numerical modeling, and geographic information system (GIS) technologies are used. This book is indeed the first attempt to apply a quantitative, multidisciplinary approach to the assessment of those changes occurring presently and those anticipated in the future to dynamic relationships between the regional socio-economic dimension, global change, and marine ecology. The results presented in this book arise from multiple sources, viz. archival data, contemporary publications and reports, as well as information products obtained using new methods such as satellite remote sensing. GIS. numerical model simulations, and elements of systems analysis. It is this multi-method, multidisciplinary approach that distinguishes this collective work from the previous publications on the White Sea.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 758 | | Comments (0)

Nitrogen in the marine environment

   Challenges and Overview of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle; Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds in the Ocean; Chemical Composition of Marine Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON); Nitrification and Denitrification (including Anammox) in Marine Systems; Nitrogen Assimilation/Uptake and Regeneration; Land Based Sources of Nitrogen; Phototransformations of DON; Nitrogen and Marine Eutrophication; Nitrogen Uptake in the Southern, Atlantic, Indian Oceans, in Inland Seas, and in the North Pacific Trades Biome; Coastal Upwelling; Estuaries; Nitrogen Cycling in Coastal Sediments; Macroalgal Dominated Ecosystems; Nitrogen Cycling in Coral Reef Environments; Nitrogen Dynamics of Coastal Salt Marshes; Seagrass Habitats; Various Aspects of Marine Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Physiology; Bacterias, Viruses, and the Microbial Loop; Nitrogen Metabolism and Consumption in Marine Zooplankton; Nitrogen Fixing and Nitrifying Symbioses; Analytical Methods for the Nitrogen Study; Nitrogen Stable Isotopes; Molecular Approaches to the Nitrogen Cycle; Isotope Tracer Methods; Nitrogen Cycling and Enzymes; Nitrogen in Past Marine Environments; Feedbacks Between the Nitrogen, Oxygen Cycles and Carbon;Linking the Oceanic Biogeochemistry of Phosphorus and Iron with the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 764 | | Comments (0)

Chronobiology of Marine Organisms

   Moonshine; Biorhythms of coastal organisms; Daily and tidal time-cues; Compasses and clocks; Semilunar, lunar, and annual biorhythms; Plankton vertical migration rhythms; Living clockwork; Staying put in estuaries; Ocean drifters.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 867 | | Comments (0)

Essentials of oceanography

   My aim in writing this relatively compact book was to produce a text that would enhance students' natural enthusiasm for the ocean. My students have been involved in this book from the very beginning—indeed, it was their request for a readable, engaging, and thorough text that initiated the project a long time ago. Through the nearly 30 years I have been writing textbooks, my enthusiasm for oceanic knowledge has increased (if that is possible), forcing my patient reviewers and editors to weed out an excessive number of exclamation points. But enthusiasm does shine through. One student reading the final manuscript of an earlier edition commented, "At last, a textbook that does not read like stereo instructions." Good!

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 4271 | | Comments (0)

Deep Marine Mineral Resources

   Major industrial developments are based on the availability of energy and minerals: iron in the 19th century, aluminium and copper in the 20th century, silicon and high-tech metals for the past twenty years. Today, glowing tensions are emerging between mineral availability and global requirements, especially in major industrial countries, which continue to rise in number and force. China's growth alone accounts for half of the rise in demand for base metals since 2000. Given the risks for Europe of supply shortages of strategic metals used in many high-tech industries, or even of certain common metals such as copper, it has become necessary to actively explore the potential of deep-sea mineral resources (DSMR). as a possible source in addition to known deposits on land. It is with this as a backdrop that I decided to launch a study, in September 2009. on this subject with a 2030 vision, focusing on the needs of France and Europe. France boasts a vast ocean territory, technological resources and long recognised skills in deep-sea exploration: it is therefore important that France continues to be a major player in this exploration, especially at a time when the conditions governing industrial development of this sector are being defined. Over twenty French partners, representing the sector's main players, were involved in this year-long study. I would like to thank them most sincerely for their investment in this collective effort. The issues addressed were both numerous and complex, as they concerned changes in the legal framework, supply and markets. the types of deep-sea geological sites liable to be exploited, the possible technologies and then impacts, all in an environment that remains poorly known and difficult to access.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 922 | | Comments (0)

Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions

   The book contains useful information on such aspects of marine science as monitoring for detecting the impacts of extraction of the hydrodynamic energy, hydrodynamic setting and physics of marine renewable energy, the influence of addition of hard substrara and fisheries exclusion on crustaceans and fish, underwater sound recording methods working at wave-energy and tidal-stream sites and much more than that.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 959 | | Comments (0)

Lagrangian Analysis and Prediction of Coastal and Ocean Dynamics

   This book was written by a group of international experts, and represents a review of Lagrangian observation, assimilation and analysis methods in both biological and physical oceanography. Recently, quite a large number of drifting and floating drifting research buoys have been deployed in the global oceans with the intention to study the state of the ocean and the ocean's variation in terms of water mass properties, heat transport and circulation. Lagrangian techniques are necessary in order to be able to to analyze the data from the above noted buoys.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 843 | | Comments (0)

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

   As this book attests, research on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater has burgeoned in the past decade. This increase in activity is evident not only from the growing number of articles published each year in the scientific literature, but also from the topical breadth and broad integration of present research. The oceanographic community's perception of DOM has evolved from an emphasis on a dilute and largely separate pool of remarkably old and static substances to the current view of a dynamic assemblage of organic molecules that interact with each other, trace metals, and living organisms over a broad continuum of space and time scales. The sparingly reactive components of this molecular continuum that persist and change on time scales sampled by conventional oceanographic surveys represent a small molecular outcrop of a churning mass of molecules through which much of the total primary production of the ocean cycles...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 873 | | Comments (0)

Fate and Effects of Oil in Marine Ecosystems
   Like all living creatures man has from the very outset influenced the environment. Initially, the traces of human activity were hardly noticeable and so were their effects on the equilibrium of the ecosystem as such. However, as soon as man learned how to use tools, he was able to influence his surroundings more drastically, and to proliferate more rapidly. As a matter of fact that is the time when things went wrong, because a process was started off which was to continue with ever-increasing speed and on an ever-increasing scale. The present condition of nature as a result of the activities of mankind is generally known. Whether it is an accident with a nuclear plant or the vanishing of tropical rain forests, acid deposition or the pollution of soil, water and air, environmental disasters almost seem to be the order of the day. It is striking that with all these - more or less arbitrary - examples the provision of energy plays a role. In this respect one can add an even more important energy carrier to the list, namely: crude oil. At the slightest mishap the transport of oil over sea and offshore oil production may have serious consequences for the marine ecosystem. From the papers in this book it becomes clear that oil spills at sea continue to affect the ecosystem for a very long time. That's why it is essential that policy-makers both in government and in industry should know exactly what happens to the ecosytems in case of a mishap. In this connection the research results presented during the TNO Conference on Oil Pollution dealing with the "Fate and effects of oil in marine ecosystems" are of major interest in that they provide policy guidelines with respect to risk assessment and risk management.
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 857 | | Comments (0)

Wave Energy Conversion
   Civilization over the centuries has not changed the human need of the physical requirements of heat and light for survival. However, population growth over the years has placed such a demand on the earth's primary available energy resources that there has been a constant search for additional sources to meet the increasing needs. Over and above basis needs, extraordinary demands for energy supply have increased many-fold due to the excessive and wasteful use of power by some countries, resulting in possible permanent damage to the earth's environment. The result is that present resources and methods of energy production, apart from the increased potential damage they may cause to the environment, may not be able to meet future world requirements. Therefore, alternative ways of supplying power must be developed and all possibilities explored. This need is more evident each day as the data concerning global warning is becoming more conclusive. Fortunately there is increasing evidence and practical proof that alternative energy sources can be gained by the use of the earth's natural energy sources that are both renewable and that have little impact on, and damage to, the natural environment. These energy sources are solar, wind and the ocean's potential energy, all of which have identifiable natural locations on the earth's surface, which enhance their performance. While individually each can provide only a percentage of the total requirements, together their output can supply considerable energy.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1229 | | Comments (0)

Chemistry in the Marine Environment
   The oceans cover over 70% of our planet's surface. Their physical, chemical and biological properties form the basis of the essential controls that facilitate life on Earth. Current concerns such as global climate change, pollution of the world's oceans, declining fish stocks, and the recovery of inorganic and organic chemicals and pharmaceuticals from the oceans call for greater knowledge of this complex medium. This volume brings together a number of experts in marine science and technology to provide a wide-ranging examination of some issues of major environmental impact. The first article, by William Miller of the Department of Oceanography at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, provides an introduction to the topic and an overview of some of the key aspects and issues. Chemical oceanographic processes are controlled by three principal concepts: the high ionic strength of seawater, the presence of a complex mixture of organic compounds, and the sheer size of the oceans. The organic chemistry of the oceans, for example, although involving very low concentrations, influences the distribution of other trace compounds and impacts on climate control via feedback mechanisms involving primary production and gas exchange with the atmosphere. The great depth and expanse of the oceans involve spatial gradients and the establishment of distinctive zones wherein a diversity of marine organisms are sensitive to remarkably small changes in their chemical surroundings. The impact of human activities on marine biodiversity is of growing concern.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1022 | | Comments (0)

Marine Acoustics - Direct and Inverse Problems
   Bodies of water such as oceans, lakes, and rivers (in short, seas) cover more than two-thirds of the surface of our planet. The climate of the earth is largely conditioned by exchanges of heat and mass between the seas and the atmosphere. Although much of human activity, i.e.. shipping, fishing, extraction of natural resources (such as water itself, sedimentary solids, and petroleum), communication, traveling, washing, rejection of waste, warfare, etc.. occurs on the surface and within these fluid masses. For humans, seas are. and remain, essentially a hostile, unknown, and unexplored medium (it being understood that the latter includes sedimentary layers located below the seafloor). For this reason ways have been sought of probing the sea at a distance. Doing this by optical means proved unsuccessful, except at rather small distances, because of (fluid) turbidity or (solid) opacity. Other electromagnetic waves are more or less absorbed due to the conductivity of seawater. On the other hand, elastic waves, i.e.. longitudinal (acoustic) waves in fluids, or combined longitudinal-transverse waves in solids, propagate well over long distances (i.e., with little attenuation, this being less true in the sedimentary layers) in sea environments and thus constitute excellent vectors for gathering information (including that of a mechanical nature, of great importance in many applications) concerning what lies beneath the surface of the seas.
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1035 | | Comments (0)

The Dynamic Method in Oceanography
   This book is an attempt to justify the dynamic method theoretically and to elucidate the nature of currents computed by it. The accuracy of dynamic computations and the critical importance of the depth of the reference surface are examined. The structure of the gradient component of the velocity of a wind-driven current, the principal component computed by the dynamic method, is analyzed and a method is proposed for determining the depth below which the water density field does not noticeably affect the velocity of the gradient current. A special chapter is devoted to a critical review of methods for determining the "zero" surface. The main practical procedures for computing currents by the dynamic method under complex conditions, such as in shallow areas and with a non-horizontal "zero" surface, are examined. All the major results are illustrated in the last chapter, where a dynamic chart of the surface of the northwestern Pacific is constructed.
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1062 | | Comments (0)

Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century
   Biomedical application of marine natural products - overview of 1999 and 2001 workshop - keynote address; drug discovery and development; genomics and proteomics; biomaterials and bioengineering; public policy, partnerships, and outreach.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1033 | | Comments (0)

The Science of Ocean Waves
   Some of my best memories of Hawaii are of watching the surfers at the Banzai Pipeline, on the north shore of Oahu, In the months between November and January, waves 10 meters (m) high or more roll in majestically, curl, and break with awesome power. These waves draw a dedicated band of top-flight surfers, who come to compete or just to test their skills. But come back during a gale and see the power of the Ocean when it is fully aroused by strong winds. Then the surf is really spectacular, with breakers that crash with a sonic boom and flood up the beach, carrying everything before them. In a hurricane, it is not worth your life to remain too near the shore. Powerful ocean waves fascinate the public, and they have made a lot of news lately. We all remember the terrible loss of life and property that Hurricane Katrina caused in 2005. Much of the damage on the Gulf Coast was caused by battering waves that rode up a storm surge to a height of 9 m. Then there was the tsunami launched by the great Sumatran earthquake in December 2004. At Aceh, near the epicenter, a wave of 30m (98ft) crashed onshore and obliterated the town. This impulsive wave crossed the Indian Ocean and killed over 200,000 people in 14 countries. But the great tsunami that crushed the shore of Japan in March 2011 and inundated the Fukushima nuclear power plant was in some ways the scariest of recent events. The combination of a magnitude 9.0 earthquake, a 10-m tsunami, and the prospect of a core meltdown was a scenario usually seen only in science fiction...

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1504 | | Comments (0)

Marine Science - The People Behind The Science
   Water covers more than 71 percent of the surface of the Earth, giving it the nickname "the blue planet." More than 90 percent of the Earth's living space is in the ocean, and until 500 million years ago, all life-forms existed there. The health of the planet and its inhabitants depends on the cycling of water and the minerals and nutrients it carries. For millions of years, the oceans have influenced climate and weather patterns. Human's relationship with die sea began in ancient times as he depended on it for food, livelihood, and enjoyment, but lack of technology limited the ability of people to explore the oceans scientifically until recendy. In addition to numerous economically valuable resources acquired from the seas, scientists have found insight into the origin of life, model organisms for studying reproduction and development, and geological processes at work shaping the Earth. Early marine studies involved pulling nets through the water behind a boat or dragging buckets of mud from the seafloor to the surface. Introduced in the early 1700s, the diving bell, a large container that was open at the bottom and filled with air supplied from leather tubes, allowed men to work in shallow water for short periods of time. A century later, diving suits that were connected via hoses to an air supply aboard a ship increased the mobility of a submerged person. In the 1940s, the introduction of scuba gear freed divers from the restrictions of any cable, allowing horizontal and vertical movement within a safe range of depths. Because water pressure on the body increases with depth, divers whose bodies were not protected in an enclosed, pressure -controlled environment could only descend about 100 feet (30 m). When submersible vehicles, such as the bathysphere and bathyscaph, allowed men to dive much deeper, explorers were amazed at the previously unseen colorful scenery and abundance of interesting organisms. Today, from the safety of a research vessel, scientists skillfully maneuver remote-controlled robots that have real-time video capabilities for recording observations and coordinated mechanical arms for recovering samples from the bottom of the ocean floor. Sonar reveals information about the seabed, and photographs taken from satellites in space expose marine geological formations. The marine sciences include all of the sciences as thev relate to the sea. For example, marine biology is the study of organisms that live in the sea; a marine biologist might examine the distribution of populations in different zones due to different temperatures or light requirements. A chemist might study the composition of seawater with respect to its salinity and dissolved gases. A construction company might hire a marine geologist to locate sand and gravel aggregates for use in building roads. The tidal motions or the strength and direction of currents would be of interest to a physicist. Because the oceans greatly impact the climate and weather, meteorologists must study oceanography, the science encompassing the physical geography of the oceans and seas, in order to understand atmospheric circulation patterns and predict effects of phenomena such as El Nino...
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 2778 | | Comments (0)

Marine Protected Areas - Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems
   This "Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems" is a report produced by OSB (Ocean Studies Board) representing the culmination of a long, two-year examination of this approach to marine resource management. This publication is aimed to be a sound basis for all future efforts to implement and design protected areas and marine reserves as it provides necessary recommendations about how to use the knowledge we possess and also a description of what we need to improve the effectiveness of it.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1226 | | Comments (0)

Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences
   This book covers the main aspects of so-called submarine mass movements. Almost one century back, in 1928 the earthquake off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland caused a huge submarine mass movement. As a result, the undersea communication cables were sheared and a tsunami was generated. Twenty seven people died at that time. This event made people initiate the realization that the seafloor has the potential to do harm, being a dynamic environment. There were some more catastrophes, including the submarine mass movements off the Nice airport (1979) and the ones off Papua, New Guines (2001). The submarine mass movements do present a very high risk for people and environment. As for the offshore oil industry, apart from direct risk to production and exploration platforms, cost of damage to pipelines caused by submarine mass movements is estimated to be about 400 million dollars annually.

Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 1175 | | Comments (0)

Wave Mechanics for Ocean Engineering
   The book aims to cover in a unitary way both the deterministic and statistical topics of the mechanics of sea waves. Furthermore, it aims to highlight some recent progress on the dynamics of random wind-generated waves and on long-term wave statistics. Finally, it aims to give a fresh approach to traditional concepts. In this regard, some original proofs are given (see the conclusive notes of each chapter), new evidence from small scale field experiments is used to introduce crucial topics like wave forces, and some widely worked examples are given. The text is intended for researchers and graduate students, but the style is such that most of the book is suitable for undergraduate students. This is because the various formulae are proved from the fundamental equations, and the harder concepts are explained with both examples and sometimes also with short stories. Strictly speaking, it is assumed that the reader has knowledge of calculus and basic mechanics.
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 2393 | | Comments (0)

Descriptive physical oceanography
   Two-thirds of the earth's surface is covered by the waters of the oceans which greatly affect our lives. As human populations grow more and more rapidly/ as our technological development takes place at a faster pace, as man moves forward with his relentless search for greater understanding of the universe in which he lives, detailed knowledge and understanding of the oceans and their contents will assume much greater importance. The oceans present a challenge to man which in magnitude may approach that of space.
Category: MARINE SCIENCE & OCEANOGRAPHY | Views: 2246 | | Comments (0)

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