Mediterranean Sea - Ecosystems, Economic Importance and Environmental Threats

   In the present popular and useful publication, the authors have perfectly presented a very thorough topical research in the study of the eco-systems as well as economic significance and potential threats to the environment of the Mediterranean Sea region. Among the topics that have been covered within this volume, there are the necessity for the business-oriented and economic approach to the associated ecosystem services. The publication also addresses the matters of marine pollution caused by the shipwrecks located at the bottom of the sea and various effects of the PFW, standing for the so-called "produced formation water" on the marine environment in the subject region. In addition to above, the authors have paid particular and close attention to the environmental modeling plan covering both construction and operation of the marine terminal for the re-gasifying of the LNG in the North Adriatic Sea, and they have also dealt with the study of various biologically active peptides from the venom of the cone snail conus ventricosus in the Mediterranean Sea. In short, this title is expected to be of great practical use for all people having serious interest in this geographic area, together with its ecological system and existing threats to the environment.

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Polymers in a Marine Environment

   The plastics and polymers, as well as various composite materials are in wide use throughout the shipping industry; therefore they are commonly get exposed to the sea water. The biological fouling of the marine waters inevitably leads to the different problems for the vessels and boats, namely in the form of progressing corrosion of the hull and reduced speed of the ship, which the industry would like to prevent. Hundreds of thousand tones of plastic wastes discarded to the sea every year, reach the environment because of the various shipping activities and land run-off. Today, it is estimated that about one million of the marine animals are killer by choking on floating plastics or due to entanglement in the debris made by plastic wastes, and the main reason for that is the slow degradation of the plastic materials. The polymers applied in the shipping industry, shall not foul and shall be stable for the long periods of exposure to the marine environment. The present volume is covering the polymers' interaction with the marine environment and associated problems to the ecology, as well as their biological degradation and fouling, together with the possible solutions. That is why it is recommended to the people with the interest in utilization of these materials in the maritime industry and environment protection. 

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The Land-Sea Interactions

   This publication was worked out by Patrick Prouzet in collaboration with Andre Monaco, with the ultimate intention to provide readers with a systemized professional view of the existing wide diversity of the impacts as well as pressures that are commonly produced by the changes in climate and by the actions by humans. The erosion of the biological diversity caused by changing of the chemistry of the ocean, ongoing intensification of the global changes are raising the serious problem of the adaptation of various living resources to the new used conditions. The land uses are inducing the eco-imbalances that, in turn, lead to the asphyxiation of the true coastal ecological systems. There is a constant necessity for the marine environments and associated food webs to assimilate more than one billion tons of the solid wastes. In addition to that, the discharges of various radioactive materials that are emitting to the atmosphere or water, is also raising the serious question of their future. The book consists of five chapters addressing the continent-sea interface, tracers of the exchanges, eutrophication of the sea environment, marine pollution caused by the debris, and radioactivity having the anthropic origin. Some of the images are there at the end of the volume to supplement the text.

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Development of Marine Resources

   The process of the exploitation of various marine resources, their recovery and economic networks generated by them have been duly addressed in this book from the perspective of continually growing environmental constraints, as well as the associated technical innovation and policy management. The latest developments in the field of marine biotechnology and marine renewable resources, show that man could develop new technologies services and property of the ocean through them. But, the above stated resources for the development necessitates taking into consideration all technical and social plus also political aspects, and this would be the actual price of both sustainability and also development of the different coastal populations together with the economic sectors, facing with the major objectives of a so-called "blue growth" and reverting to the good state of environment. The book has four major chapters. The first chapter has been mainly dedicated to the general matters of fishing in the Mediterranean area, providing some historical background and also shedding some light on the associated technical changes. The second chapter is concentrating on the microalgae and biotechnology. In turn, the third chapter of the publication addresses the pharmacology of the reef marine organisms; Marine Renewable Energies. Last chapter of the volume is dealing with the marine renewable energies.

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Acoustic Fish Reconnaissance

   For a long time and until now, there has been a serious need for the work that would systematically present the whole subject of the acoustic fish reconnaissance and detailing all the most important and major technical aspects of the application of the acoustic equipment in the field of commercial fish reconnaissance, and also offering readers sufficiently deep and thorough analysis of the actual effectiveness of the established fish-finding techniques. he publication by K. Yudanov and I. Kalikhman was specifically worked out and released to respond to this need through provision of the required comprehensive overview of both theoretical and practical aspects of the acoustic detection and search, as well as the interpretation and estimation of the population, performed for commercial benefit. Particular and close attention has been paid by the authors to the accounting surveys for the quantitative estimation of relevant bio-resources and fishing conditions in the areas considered traditional for fishing activities. They have also analyzed different applications of the acoustic technique on the basis of the extensive investigations carried out by themselves. The main content of the volume includes the results of the applicability of the various fish-finding tools, and useful recommendations on the improvement of the techniques in question.

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Network Economics of Marine Ecosystems and their Exploration

   The title is first of all intended to show the readers the ways of proper application of the common principles and mostly used tools of the network economics, for instance the problems of variational inequalities and complementarily, and studying of the large natural systems being exploited, particularly marine systems, at different levels, namely regional, continental and also global levels. The systems that have been addressed in this book, are actually being exposed to the changes in climate and to the globalization of the economy, i.e. the phenomenon first defined by O'Brien and Leichenko as the "double exposure". The present volume has been organized in four major parts. The first part of the book is introducing the issues, discussing the marine ecosystems that are subject to the above mentioned double exposure, providing the required intro to the network theories, with particular attention being paid to the relationship between functions and structures, diversity of the terms and formalisms, as well as applications, and arbitrariness of the graphical representations, discussing the equilibrium vs dynamics issue, presenting the math instruments forming the necessary background for application of the network economics approach; they also introduce the notations and principles, convex optimization, and so many other important aspects. 

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Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

   The Baltic Sea is deservedly treated as a unique basin - it is relatively shallow and small, and should rather be looked at a series of separate basins connected to the Atlantic Ocean only by means of the Danish Straits. The water exchange through the above mentioned series of straits is quite limited, and as a result of the positive balance of the fresh water, the water mass of the Baltic Sea is brackish, with its mean salinity being about seven per cent — 1/5 of the salinity of normal ocean waters. This elongated sea lies between maritime temperate and continental sub-Arctic climate zones. During the winter time, it is partly covered by ice, and at most severe winters it is completely frozen over. The variable coastal geo-morphology and the wide archipelago areas give the Baltic Sea its individual appearance. There are four major brackish water basins in the World Ocean, as further discussed in the book. The mean depth of the Black Sea is about 1200 metres and, owing to the strong salinity stratification and extremely slow renewal of the deep water, the water masses below 200 m are anoxic... In short, the publication will be very useful for the people involved in oceanographic and other activities in the area because of the information included by the authors.

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Surveying and Charting of the Seas

   According to the author, his original  intention was that this volume would serve several different purposes, including giving readers an overall picture of the several aspects of charting and surveying and, at the same time, going a bit deeper into those of the subjects which commonly seem to require some additional attention, or are in need of a more modern approach. Also, where deemed desirable, several completely new subjects have been introduced. In the meantime, it was considered a necessity not to overlook simpler methods and less complicated equipment, as not every survey ship possesses the modern equipment for the electronic data processing on board with all required instruments recording on-line. When writing this volume, the author hoped that it would assist hydrographic as well as all other marine surveyors facing with the difficulties when establishing an efficient hydrographic office and performing effective surveys for their country; who are often required to provide guidance to younger officers, not having readily available sophisticated data collection and further processing devices. As declared by W. Langeraar, the author, a serious need exists for a title not only discussing the latest equipment and all associated methodologies, but which is also covering less complicated instruments and methods...

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