We know that humans have influenced the environment in many ways in the past, but since the industrial revolution and even more during the "great acceleration in the human enterprise" following World War IT, humans have assumed the role of a dominating force in changing the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, hydro- and cryosphere and hence affecting crucial functioning of the whole Earth system...
This publication prepared by a team of experts in marine science was released to provide the industry and all interested people with a platform allowing for the presentation of both regional and global perspectives of the experiences on responses to global changes to address the key issues, for example the increasing need for water, supply variability, environmental flows and other related aspects.
The content of the book will help readers to build the required links between policy/science and practice in the field of management and governance of the water resources. The book also addresses the latest technological and institutional innovations and also identifies the keys in which the research activities could assist the practice and policy related to the sustainable freshwater management. The proper management of the fresh water is considered one of the most important challenges to reach the sustainability within the global environment.
More than a century ago, B. Helland-Nanses and I. Snadstrom and proposed a method of computing the ocean currents on the basis of the water density distribution. Later, this method became known as the dynamic method for computing elements of the ocean currents, or hydrological data analysis method.
This is the indirect method and fully bases on the theoretical assumption that the coriolis force and horizontal pressure gradient are in equilibrium in the steady state below the mixed layer of the ocean surface. The velocities of the current are calculated by means of the dynamic method. The present volume is the author's attempt to properly justify the method referred to above, theoretically and also to shed some light on the nature of currents calculated/computed using this method.
It also examines the importance of the depth of reference surface and the accuracy of the computations. In addition, the book contains the descriptions of the structure of the gradient component of a wind-driven current velocity.
However, the author of the title does not attempt to provide a thorough treatise on the method in question, but is rather trying to analyze some of the important aspects of the theoretical principles of the dynamic method together with the possible practical applications, using the ocean currents theory.
The nice and interesting publication offered here, was compiled by an excellent team made of truly recognized industry experts working in the field of marine science and has actually been dedicated to the submarine mass movements considered critically important part of the turbidity.
The opening section of the volume explains the basic nature of the submarine mass movements including the triggers and also mechanics, plus major geo-technical properties - among the issues that have been covered within present section there are advanced dynamic testing of the soil, self-organizing maps, submarine slope failure, mass wasting dynamics, micaceous sand, drag forces acting on the suspended pipelines and lines laid on the sea floor, subaqueous deposits, control of the slope destabilization, shear rupture propagation etc.
The second section is mainly focusing on the analysis of the several real-life case studies plus the assessment of hazards involved - it covers such topics as the mass-transport deposit, submarine mass transport, sediment redistribution and mass wasting in particular geographic areas, risk analysis conducted for the submarine mudslides induced by hurricane-wave effect, gas-generated pore pressure, slope instability, morphodynamic instability and numerous specific topics that would otherwise be very difficult to find in any other publication.
Nowadays, marine debris that are discharges from the vessels and other source, including the trash as well as the lost fishing gear, is seriously contributing to the ongoing spoiling of the beaches and fouling of the seafloor and surface waters; in addition to that, it causes significant harm to the marine mammals and other negative effects.
Regretfully, the existing domestic laws and international conventions that are intended to provide the due control of the discharge of marine debris, have not been too successful, and one of the reasons for that was that the laws provided little incentive to the changes in the behavior.
The authors of the present publication have made an attempt to properly identify the established ways of reduction of the wastes, decrease in the disposal of waste at marine ports, and also to strengthen the whole regulatory framework towards a zero-discharge in the environment of the sea. The progress in this field will mainly depend on a commitment to the sustained funding and also on the appropriate support.
The relevant authorities should target research in order to get to the sound understanding of the sources, associated fates and potential impacts of marine debris by means of the planning and prioritization of the related activities, and also provide the required support to the establishment of the rigorous protocols allowing to monitor at a broad variety of scales.
According to the author, his original intention was that this volume would serve several different purposes, including giving readers an overall picture of the several aspects of charting and surveying and, at the same time, going a bit deeper into those of the subjects which commonly seem to require some additional attention, or are in need of a more modern approach.
Also, where deemed desirable, several completely new subjects have been introduced. In the meantime, it was considered a necessity not to overlook simpler methods and less complicated equipment, as not every survey ship possesses the modern equipment for the electronic data processing on board with all required instruments recording on-line. When writing this volume, the author hoped that it would assist hydrographic as well as all other marine surveyors facing with the difficulties when establishing an efficient hydrographic office and performing effective surveys for their country; who are often required to provide guidance to younger officers, not having readily available sophisticated data collection and further processing devices.
As declared by W. Langeraar, the author, a serious need exists for a title not only discussing the latest equipment and all associated methodologies, but which is also covering less complicated instruments and methods...
The present volume compiled by Jan Harff, Peer Hoth and Svante Bjorck, contains the results of a Special Symposium which was held some years ago and dedicated to the Baltic Sea basin with the purpose to foster the due understanding of it looking from the point of structure and genesis as well as processes and utilization issues.
The publication contains the comprehensive overview about the basin of the Baltic Sea, worked out by the scientists in the different relevant disciplines. The volume will be useful not only to the students of all levels but also to the engineers as well as to the people involved in making decisions in the industry and politics.
The authors have summarized the results obtained in the course of the investigations of the Baltic Sea basin and touched the utilization of the resources, thus enhancing the process of the development of new strategies for monitoring and design of technical devices, including various methods of satellite observation, establishing the research lab for international collaboration, etc.
In fact, the material presented in this title will be of interest for representatives of many disciplines, including marine science, marine ecology and biology, oceanography, who are working in the geographical region in question and equally useful to the people working in other areas. It combines the original studies with the review, using the inter-disciplinary approach.
This volume written by A. Kostianoy and A. Kosarev has been mainly dedicated to the environment of the Aral Sea. This work is presenting quite detailed description and systemized knowledge that have been accumulated to date and related to the marine chemistry as well as physical oceanography and marine biology of the sea in question, and with particular attention paid by the authors to the monitoring of the state and various parameters of the nature of the Aral Sea together with all its surroundings, by means of the satellite techniques.
It belongs to the popular "environmental chemistry" series. The authors have also tried to highlight the key reasons for the environmental crisis that is currently progressing in the subject area, and all associated socio-economic problems. The material contained in the book bases on the valuable observation data obtained by the authors in the course of several shore and sea expeditions, on the data collected from the archives of state institutes, and from the relevant scientific literature, supplemented with the results of numerous international and Russian national researches and projects conducted during the past decades. This publication will be mainly addressed to the pro's of marine biology and chemistry, plus physical oceanography and other relevant fields.
This volume has been released with the intention of it's editor, J. Nihoul, who prepared it trying to compile in a single volume, all proceedings of the XIX International Colloquium on the problems of ocean hydrodynamics. The program of the subject conference was focusing on the relationships existing there between large- and small-scale features, together with the associated processes and transports.
The volume presents the valuable articles covering the different methods of parameterization of small-scale turbulent mixing as applied to the numerical ocean models, the presentation of subject papers has been specifically encouraged by the editor, and the application of the subject approach has finally resulted in significant portion of the articles presented during the Colloquium, dealing with the current problems of parameterization. Note that some of the presented docs demonstrated the direct results obtained during the modeling.
The volume is well reflecting the above stated proportion and emphasizes the whole importance of the researches oh small-scale turbulence for the practical applications, such as the forecasting and ocean modeling. The book will be equally useful, practical and informative for persons willing to be in the loop of any latest happenings in the subject field.
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