Cargo Handling


The full name of this document is Survey of Cargo Handling Research Relative to the MOB (Mobile Offshore Base) needs. Subject research was performs and results released by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The MOB management team of the ONR (Office of Naval Research) considered crane development a critical technology required for any feasible mobile offshore base.

Subsequently, they requested the NIST to asses the present-day state of practice in the field of crane automation as well as motion compensation. The present survey report is aimed to set a baseline and identify any further research required in order to satisfy the gaps in the technology, should any of the be revealed. The survey scope includes cranes and any other auto-technology utilized when performing the LO/LO transfer of cargo, including the containers. The authors made the emphasis on the containers transfer between the container vessels and mobile offshore bases.

The issues related to the loading/unloading cargo brought by air are not dealt with in this report. the requirements applicable to the mobile offshore base cranes have mostly be developed in the NIST lab researches; however, some additional input was made by various developers of the MOB concept...

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This Guide was developed and released by the professionals of the Wallenius Wilhelmsen company, one of the world leaders in the field of the marine cargo transportation. The booklet is divided into three basic parts, namely Handling, Static Cargo, and Equipment.

The Company carries huge volumes of static cargo all around the world, including machinery items, which require very careful hndling fue to the electronics fitted. The cargo to be transported is usually stowed on rolltrailers; however, the bolsters are also in use for the relatively small cargoes. In turn, bolsters and rolltrailers are secured to the ship's deck. The transporters must give due care and consideration to the details of cargo securing in order to avoid any possible mechanical stress since this can easily result in the damage to the cargo. Please note that this publication shall not be treated as the textbook; this is rather the booklet describing the company's experience and outlining some major static cargo transportation techniques.

However, it will definitely be useful for people involved in marine transportation of cargoes since the techniques contained in it are worth having a look. It also addresses such issues as moving the cargo across land and sea, and bringing distances from shore to the sea

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Nowadays, maritime accidents resulting in oil spills are on the very top of the list of public environmental concerns. Such oil spills are extremely difficult to control and they may eventually contaminate the marine environment. Once the oil is spilled, it immediately undergoes significant chemical, physical and biological changes, being degraded by the bacteria. And the most serious problem is that most of the modern technologies of spill recovery, that are used today, are not too effective.

In case of an oil spill, only ten or fifteen percent of the oil is usually recovered with the best rates being about thirty percent - for sure, that is too far from satisfactory figures. The main objectives of the present work are to assess the most important threats that are posed by transportation of the "heavy" oil (i.e. one with the specific gravity >1) by sea and to assess the adequacy of the existing cleanup technologies, to recommend the new researches in order to develop new cleanup techniques, to identify the barriers to the most effective responses to the oil spills and recommend the measures (financial, management or technological) that would assist in promoting prompt and effective responses to the "heavy" oil spills...

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The present Standard shall be considered the basic source reference of proper planning, safe handling and stowage, as well as securing and lashing of project cargoes. It is applicable to all vessels and forms a part of Rickmers-Linie QMS. Its declared purpose and spirit is to get the ship owners, stevedores and, in fact, any other involved parties informed about the safe cargo securing and handling techniques.

All technical details of this Standard fully comply with the IMO Res. A.714(17), as amended. The document, in particular, is intended to provide detailed info on the lifting, bedding, securing and lashing of transported cargo and also deals with the equipment utilized; the maintenance related issues have also been addressed. The cargo information that must be supplied by the shippers as per SOLAS Chapter IV reg. 2, has also been described in this standard, together with the required configuration of bedding areas, securing points and lifting provisions.

These aspects are to correspond with the tensile strength of the securing gear on board of the vessel as well as the deck layout. In case the requirements stated in this Standard cannot be met, an alternative solution providing the equivalent safety level is to be applied. 

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With the expansion that happened to the world energy over the past century the oil has become the major player, capable of meeting all the energy needs. Before that, coal used to be the main fossil; however, oil started to play more and more important role as it is easier to store and handle.

This revised and updated edition of the Handbook addresses the most important developments in oil tankers and the equipment utilized for handling the oil; the chemical and LNG tankers are also covered. Nowadays, marine transportation of oil is a vast industry and the importance of safety matters caused a huge number of national and international regulations to be developed and implemented.

All those regulations are updated on the regular basis and all crew members are obliged to be familiar with them and get all necessary training in order to meet the requirements. Quite a lot time passed since first edition of this book was released; the author tried to retain most part of the material related to the older ships even in the new releases of the Handbook, for broader view and proper understanding of the subject. In this latest edition the COW systems have also been covered due to their input in the environment protection.

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It is well known that the lightering a very cost-effective and efficient method of delivering crude oil from various locations to refineries all over the world and an excellent method of transportation of petroleum products. As the huge supertankers often used to transport oil, are too deep and too wide to enter ports, lightering appears to be the most practical option.

Of course, the oil spills are the real danger while carrying out lightering operations and everyone has to take care of marine pollution. This study sheds some light on the basic aspects of safety during lightering operations. As a common shipping practice, the lightering was first emerged in United States waters, particularly in the Mexican Gulf, more than thirty years ago. Historically, the safety of lightering operations has almost never been questioned, despite of the obvious risks arising when the liquid cargo is being transferred between two ships, underway or drifting, or anchored. But, congressional attention has been drawn to the lightering operations in recent years, by the general public concerns about the marine oil spills and environment pollution.

This publication contains some kind of lightering primer with the very basic information, it also tells the reader about the lighering ships, systems and environment, describes the most important procedures and practices, and explains how the human factor may affect.

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This ultimate goal of the authors of the present training manual was to provide the readers with the knowledge about how they should measure and calculate petroleum cargoes, how they should use the tools and instruments used on board their ships, and how they should understand and value the results obtained from instruments used on board. Finally, we would like to suggest some good and practical routines to be used on board your ship when measuring cargo.

Nowadays, huge part of the world's oil reserves lies somewhere in and around the Persian Gulf. Those reserves are significant and will definitely last for a very long time. Huge amounts of crude oil will be produced and then transported by vessels from the oil producers to the industries. Usually, the oil companies seldom own their own tanker fleets. However, the petroleum products still have to be shipped and oil tankers will for sure continue to work on the high seas though today they are not actually run the traditional way and they are no more owned by the traditional owners.

Most of the vessels are owned by shipping companies and their crews are usually employed by other, managing (in a restricted or "total" way), companies. Marine transportation of oil is a very complicated task...

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Well, it is very difficult to exaggerate the huge importance of duly maintained and secure ship hatch covers to the sea - and cargo-worthiness. The steel hatch covers were first introduced more than sixty years ago and their introduction immediately solved nearly all problems associated with the old-style tarpauline and wood arrangements. However, some new problems appeared - we are now talking about the ingress of sea water.

Nowadays, the hatch covers are quite large and complex, and what it means is that even small defects or errors may potentially result in extremely damaging effects. The leakage occurring to the hatch covers results in substantial costs as it directly damages the cargo. The present guide book provides info in quite simple way to the crew members and shore supporting teams and sets out to improve the understanding of what the hatch covers are and how their work, the day-to-day maintenance of hatch covers on vessels, and methods used when operating the hatch covers.

Apart from the leakage issues, all statutory requirements relating to the weather-tightness have also been described. The recommended procedures contained in this guide are not complicated at all and will be easy to understand for everyone.

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