Cargo Handling


Here is another part of the computer-based training (CBT) programme by Seagull AS. It is intended to cover the requirements for levels 1 and 2 training as required by Chapter 5 Reg. V/1 & Sec. A-V/1 1.2, 2.2 of the STCW 95. The course addresses the topics vitally important for the safe carriage of the liquefied gas by sea - physics and chemistry of the gases, health hazards, all applicable regulations and rules, ship design, cargo containment and handling systems, safety of the ship and crew, various cargo handling operations, emergency operations and some other related information.

   The material contained in this booklet will help readers improve their skills and get some additional knowledge of the subject; this, in turn, will definitely result in safer transportation of the gases by sea. Trainees who have satisfactorily completed this section will have a thorough knowledge of the production of liquefied gas and its composition, actual gas cargoes, qualification standards as per the STCW Code, condensation of the LNG and plat flow diagram, chemical gases, GTL (gas to liquid) option, sea transportation of LNG and latest technological developments in this field, and some alternative solutions for LNG handling.

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The transportation of chemical cargoes by sea commenced together with the rapid progress in the chemical industry after the World War Two. initially, chemicals were transported in drums or bottles on dry cargo vessels; in case of larger quantities such cargo was transported in bulk in deep tanks. With the increase in the demand for chemicals, it was evident that there was a need for a completely new type of seagoing vessel.

The first chemical ships were the old American oil tankers (T-2, war-built). The conversion scope included adding some bulkheads in order to provide more tanks extending the ship's line systems, and adding some more cargo pumps. This course is the part of the CBT by Seagull AS. It is developed to cover all requirements for levels 1 and 2 training as required by Chapter 5 Reg. V/1 & Sec. A-V/1 Regs. 15-21 of the STCW Convention. The booklet starts with the introduction, followed by course description and main text.

The chapters of the book address such the important aspects of chemical cargo transportation as chemistry and physics of cargo, associated hazards, applicable rules and regulations, vessel design and cargo containment, cargo handling systems, ship safety and marine pollution prevention issues, ballast operation, tank cleaning operations, ship/shore interface, cargo compatibility chart, and other information...

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There were two main objectives which the author of this nice book did bear in mind when he was preparing it for release. Firstly, it was his attempt to define the main functions of a sea port in general; his second aim was  to explain to the readers how these functions were affected by the silent revolution that has taken place in the major ports of the world since 1945.

All ports are different and it was very difficult task to write a book that would set out every variation of port management and practice in a readable manner. Robert Oram set out the very basic principles applying to the majority of ports. As a result, this book is easy to read and understand and will definitely be considered a nice reference book for everyone involved in the shipping industry. All ports are different and their layout is determined by geographical factors. From the administrative point of view, ports differ even within the same country. You know, even if it was possible to prepare a publication that would set out in detail every variation of practice and management in the port, it would definitely be unreadable.

The author of this book used the alternative approach - he set out the very basic principles applicable to majority of the ports. As declared by him, this approach was used with the intention to make the book readable.

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This publication by Gard consists of selected articles addressing the cargo liquefaction, namely happening to the nickel and iron ores cargo. It sheds some light on such the important aspects of this problem as liquefaction of unprocessed ores, describes shifting solid bulk cargoes, provides some update on the latest publications by Intercargo as well as IMSBC Code amendments; the insurance position is also dealt with.

  In this booklet some of the important technical issues behind the disasters involving the transportation of unprocessed natural ores and nickel ore are considered. Liquefaction of the mineral ore cargo may result in the cargo shift which, in turn, leads to the loss of stability. This has been one of the major causes of marine accidents for decades.

The main cause of the near misses and even casualties is the poor compliance of the seamen with the certification and testing requirements designed in order to ensure that those cargoes have been loaded with the moisture content being low enough to avoid the liquefaction during the voyage. The cargoes containing even a small number of fine particles and moisture, are considered to be at risk of liquefaction, though they are not necessarily appearing wet.

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As it is required by SOLAS, each ship must comply with the requirements of the IMSBC Code, as applicable - the purpose of the subject Code is to provide necessary technical guidance on the procedures that have to be adopted during the transportation of various solid bulk cargoes, and it applies to all solid bulk cargoes, with the sole exception of grain. Nowadays, the cargoes falling in the category of liquefaction risk continue to be transported.

Liquefaction related accidents cost the marine insurance industry more than hundred million dollars in the period 2010-2013. All details of the mineral cargoes are listed in the Appendix 1 to the above stated Code together with the info related to their properties and handling and carriage peculiarities. The Code draws the attention of the shippers to the hazards that are associated with the transportation of damp/wet mineral cargoes.

Such cargoes often have high density - thus, their distribution in the cargo holds of the vessel must be specifically considered since any error may inevitably lead to the structural damage of the ship. In addition to that, these cargoes are often loaded at a quite fast pace and such loading may stress the plating of the cargo hold.

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All instructions and provisions contained in this Guideline conform to international recommendations and regulations, in particular with the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing in its 2009 edition. The units and symbols used in the publication correspond to the Systeme International d'Unites (SI-units). The BBC Guideline further complies with all provisions contained in other official documents released by BBC Chartering.

It will, in particular, provide guidance to the interpretation of, but not override the approved Cargo Securing Manuals of specific ships. Whilst the BBC Guideline offers a safe solution for handling project cargo, in special cases there might be customer requirements that require additional lashings and a lower friction factor.

If this is the case this will be specified in the planning process. 8BC will not accept under any circumstances whatsoever, any variation from the methods set in this Guideline, which would result in lower level of safety in regards to cargo handling and securing. Where any variation from the methods is deemed necessary, the methods in this Guideline should be viewed as minimum requirements.

If required, the bedding principles outlined in the book provide a safe methodology for distributing the weight of cargo items whilst maintaining the safe structure of the vessel. During pre-planning, these principles might be overruled and bedding undertaken by another means if an in-depth calculation demonstrates that an alternative method is safe. In principle, all shipments of heavy and/or sensitive project cargo units are pre-planned by BBC Chartering.

The technical shipping procedures are in some cases laid down in a "loading manual", which is provided to the master of the vessel. This does not limit in any way the responsibility of the master for the appropriate application of all relevant procedures. The master has the overriding authority to deviate from the "loading manual" if the safety situation or nature of cargo requires this. BBC Chartering should always be contacted if a change to the planned operation is required. If there is а 3rd party surveyor present and BBC is obliged by contract to seek his approval of procedures, the field staff must obtain written confirmation from the surveyor in attendance that the changes have been agreed. The principle above also applies to instructions given in this Guideline.

Where no instruction, recommendation or technical rule is provided, the reader should support the master who is responsible and obligated to take deviating decisions if the safely of personnel, cargo or vessel so demands. Safety is always our highest priority. Any person using this Guideline as a reference who has any questions relating to this Guideline, or has any doubts when handling cargo for BBC, should contact the BBC Port Captain department for guidance...

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The up-to-date information on all major aspects of transportation of the harmful substances is required in order to eliminate any possibility of accidents involving such type of cargoes. It means that we must always take into account the information on what exactly substances are being handled, what are the amounts and on what routes they are transported.

The present publication was released to encompass stats related to the chemical liquids transportation in the Baltic Sea area some years ago. The data for the research have been taken from the main sea ports of the area in question. However, please note that the amount and quality of the information may vary from port to port. Moreover, some of the ports are quite reluctant to provide the information on the chemicals they transport.

That is why even after this research we cannot be sure that the statistics on the liquid chemical transportation in the subject area may be considered comprehensive enough. The handling of chemical cargoes is a very demanding task, and, in case of an accident, information on the characteristics and amounts of the chemicals shall be immediately available. Maritime safety in the Baltic Sea area has significantly improved as a result of the decisions taken at the regional and global level. 

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Forklift trucks are invaluable on board ship for moving cargo, lashings, securing devices, trestle horses, machinery, ship's stores, garbage or dunnage. But they can be dangerous - even fatal - to drivers and personnel in their vicinity, if not driven safely or maintained correctly.

They can also cause serious damage to equipment and property. The most common accidents from forklift trucks happen when the truck turns over, the driver falls from the truck, passengers fall off, a person is in the vicinity of a forklift truck and is not seen by the driver, or the driver travels too high, too fast or too light.

The accidents involving forklift trucks mainly occur because the established safe operating procedures are not adequate or not enforced properly; it may also happen that there is some complacency since the procedure is automated. In addition to that, drivers are sometimes not trained enough to operate the machine, or they may be under significant pressure.

This booklet is mainly aimed at operators of these trucks and may be used as a refresher to familiarize them with the equipment. It will also be helpful for crew members who may appear in the vicinity of the area where forklift operations take place. The booklet shall be used together with the video training lesson.

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