Liquefied Gases Handling

05.08.2017
TYPES OF LIQUEFIED GAS CARRIERS

This is the Discussion Paper dedicated to the Types of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Carriers, prepared by the Shipping International Ltd. It was abbreviated from the Tanker Safety Training (LNG) publication. All gas cargoes can be transported only in a form of a liquid (i.e. neither gas nor even vapor) and, taking into account their physical/chemical properties, they have to be either at pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, or at temperatures below ambient temperature; the third option is in fact a combination of first two.

That is why all gas carriers are usually divided in three groups - fully-pressurized, semi-pressurized and refrigerated, and fully refrigerated. However, it shall be noted that the grouping names stated above are mostly used when discussing the types and classes of LPG rather than carriers of natural gas.

Take your time and just go through this short but very informative booklet and you will get a good knowledge of the nomenclature of the gas carriers and will be much more familiar with their types, general technical characteristics, descriptions of the construction and equipment, main advantages and disadvantages of the particular type etc. - excellent for training purposes.

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29.07.2017
GAS SHIP MEASUREMENT GUIDELINES

These guidelines were developed in 1998/99 for Exxon Chemical Europe Inc., Basic Chemicals Europe by Captain C. Allport of Standard Marine Services Limited and replace earlier guidance. They are based upon the report and advice from an LPG Measurement Survey conducted by Srini Sivaraman of ER&E in May/June 1997 and incorporate the earlier guidelines for Liquefied Gas Cargo Measurement and Calculation, produced in 1987 for Exxon Chemicals International by the Centre for Advanced Maritime Studies, Edinburgh.

The earlier guidelines were adopted by Exxon Chemical International Inc. and approved by Regional Audit in 1988. The key to accurate cargo measurement based upon ship's figures depends on the precision of the tank calibration and calibration of associated level, temperature and pressure measuring devices in addition to the use of consistent methodology. Conformance to the recommendations made in these guidelines will result in transfer custody quality that is within the expectation of Exxon Corporation controls. The practices and procedures described in this document provide guidance for improving or maintaining liquefied gas measurement level of uncertainty within the accuracy requirements of Exxon's Hydrocarbon Measurement Practices (HMP) .

Contrary to the general recommendations contained in the HMP, these practices and procedures will demonstrate that quantity determination can be based upon ship or barge measurement. Custody transfer integrity is comparable to and in some cases can be better than shore systems and match HMP requirements.

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28.07.2017
GAS TANKERS — ADVANCED COURSE

This training course has been intended to help people get better understanding on liquefied gases handling. It is actually the continuation of the training commencing with the Gas Tankers - Familiarization Course. It consists of fourteen chapters - Introduction; Actual Gas Cargoes; Compartment Systems; Freighting; Chemistry and Physics; Cargo Handling Equipment; Monitoring and Control; Safety and Environment; Gas Measurement; Cargo Pumps; Cargo Handling Routines; Cargo Calculation; Cooling Processes and associated calculations; Insulation; Heat Transfer.

It is critically important training for everyone involved in any way in marine transportation of various liquefied gases, and also in operation/maintenance of related machinery, and calculations. During the period 1984-1992 some serious limitations to the STCW became apparent. People did feel that some of its requirements were vague and left to the sole discretion of the Parties, while others declared the problems with no any IMO oversight of compliance with the requirements, limited PSC, lack of clear competence standards, etc. It does make sense for personnel dealing with running the gas tankers to go through the materials of this course.​

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28.07.2017
GAS TANKERS — FAMILIARISATION LEVEL

The present training course is aimed to help the key ratings and officers that have not previously served on board LG tankers. The book covers all mandatory minimum training requirements as prescribed by Regulation V/1, paragraph 1.2 of the STCW-95; it also includes basic pollution-prevention and safety precautions and applicable procedures, layouts of various types of liquefied gas tankers, types of transported cargo, their handling equipment and hazards plus the general sequence of operations and gas tanker terminology.

The whole training material has been arranged in two halves; the first part of the course providing some basic safety training for ship officers and ratings, while the second part provides the additional technical training for officers, masters as well as all others having immediate responsibilities for handling of cargo/equipment.

The main portion of the course starts with listing the most important stages in the LNG transportation by ships and some historical information on the development of liquefied gas handling, followed by the terminology used, properties of the liquefied gases and hazards associated with their transportation, types of gas carriers, cargo handling equipment and instrumentation etc...

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19.07.2017
LNG BUNKERING OPERATIONS

This training publication was prepared and released by the NTNU-Trondheim in order to establish probabilistic safety distances for LNG bunkering operations. The main economical and environmental benefits of using the LNG as marine fuel oil are widely recognized within the shipping industry. Today, construction of the infrastructure relating to the LNG bunkering is rapidly developing, responding to the constantly growing industry.

Numerous ports are currently preparing to supply liquefied gas fuel; however, there are some uncertainties related to the process of bunkering as well as to the operational safety. Recently, there were some research works conducted to get the available LNG bunkering solutions standardized, including launching of the related ISO guideline and RP by DNV.

Subject documents were mainly focused on the operational safety of bunkering, and on establishing of the safety zones; since very high risk is implied in the vicinity of the bunkering operations, and ferries (the main customers for the LNG fuel) have passengers most of the time, who are not allowed to present during such operations, the limitations imposed by the current regulations reduce the functionality and, consequently the competitiveness of LNG - that is why such fuel is a bit problematic for the ferry shipping companies...

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19.07.2017
LNG — A GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Since LNG are playing a very important part in today's world's energy mix, the professionals of the industry must be familiar with liquid natural gases terminology. The changing and constantly growing nature of LNG implies that its language brings together terms from the worlds of technique, finance, trading, utilities and many other sectors, not only from shipping and gas spheres.

The present Glossary is intended to provide a comprehensive guide to above mentioned terms. Like any other language guide it is sometimes fascinating and intriguing. It will be of great use to a very broad audience - chief executive officers, traders, accountants, tax consultants, regulators, and others -bringing together technological, commercial, engineering, accounting terms from both inside and outside the LNG sector.

This Glossary was published by PWH together with the Petroleum Economist Ltd and shall be treated as a sort of contribution to promoting transparency within the industry and for better understanding and knowledge in the global shipping industry. The glossary is excellent and maybe the best one available on the LNG transportation as it was specifically developed for this particular area of the maritime industry.

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19.07.2017
BYE—LAWS OF THE SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL GAS TANKER TERMINAL OPERATIONS LIMITED

The legal publication officially released by the SIGTTO, standing for the "Society of International Gas Tanker Terminal Operators Ltd". The main body of this document has been arranged in seventeen sections called articles. The first articles in the opening one and it addresses name, offices and definitions, while the second article is titled "Purpose, powers and activities" including prohibited activities. The third articles deals with shares, covering share capital, registration of members, transfer and purchase of shares.

The next article deals with membership and eligibility including associate membership, admission, expulsion. Then there comes an articles on meetings of members covering the quorum, voting matters, notices and representation. The following article "Assessed capacity" concentrates on computation and records of assessed capacity. The remaining articles deal with dues and assessments, officers, directors, working committees, accounts and audit, indemnification, alteration of bye-laws, interpretation, winding up, seal of the company, and forms A and B. Subject blank forms are contained there at the end of the document. The must-have one and a good reference.

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16.07.2017
ENGINE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT FOR LNG CARRIERS

As the only type of commercial vessel, Liquefied Natural Gas carriers have in the past many years maintained the steam turbine as their preferred propulsion system. This trend has persisted despite the fact that all other types of commercial vessels changed to the more efficient diesel engines in the 1970s, as a consequence of the rising fuel prices and increased environmental awareness.

Moreover, diesel engines have also proved their reliability during many years of operation. The LNG carrier did maintain the steam turbine as its propulsion system because the natural evaporated boil-off gas from the cargo is available anyway, and because no other solution for the use of boil-off gas has been made available, at that time. There are, in principle, two ways of exploiting the boil-off gas, it can be burnt in a boiler, gas turbine or dual fuel diesel engine and provide power for the propulsion of the vessel, or the boil-off gas can be reliquefied in a reliquefaction system and returned to the cargo tanks. The reliquefaction of the boil-off gas from the LNG cargo makes it possible to increase the cargo quantity delivered to the customers, instead of using it as fuel, and to install more efficient propulsion systems on LNG carriers.

An LNG carrier is a special-purpose ship in which sophisticated technology is used to transport liquefied gas, a highly flammable cargo. Safety is, of course, paramount, as is the reliability and availability of the propulsion system of such a ship, because these factors influence the whole supply chain from the well to the consumer.

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