Liquefied Gases Handling


The present recommendations were written in order to provide industry with the single document containing the guidelines relating to the manifolds and strainers installed on board vessels carrying LNG and LPG cargoes, with the objective to promote the improvement of the safety of the operations and their efficiency. They are also aimed at providing assistance to the persons engaged in arranging the facilities in the jetties.

The content of the publication was thoroughly reviewed by the leading ship operators, professional naval architects, shipbuilders and manufacturers of the relevant shipboard equipment. The instructions and guidance provided here will be useful to the LNG/LPG ship owners, planners, operators and other parties involved. The document opens with the introduction where tits scope and purpose are defined, followed by the description of the categories of the LNG and LPG ships.

The cargo manifold position is covered in the following chapter together with the associated requirements. The strainers have been discussed in the separate section of the book. Apart from that, the authors have also dealt with the protection of the marine environment from the spills originating from the cargo manifolds, lighting of the cargo manifold area, service lines and many other topics, up to the safety requirements.

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The publication was prepared by the LNG shipping industry professional and officially released by the world respected Braemar Engineering. The intention of the author was to give the guidance to all people I need for the LNG specific information that could be applied when performing their day to day duties. The book provides general introduction and historical background, followed with the explanation of the commonly used terms and basics of the vessel design.

Then, the reader will find the information about the shipbuilding contracts, types of the ships and their development. The materials used for construction of the vessels have been covered in a separate section together with the strength calculations. The next chapter is devoted to the regulatory framework including the industry rules, regulations, international conventions, codes etc.

In fact, the book will give all knowledge about the LNG ship construction at the shipyard, and the list of topics covered by the author includes but is not limited to the shipyard layout and material testing, design features, ship surveys and sea trials, steel cutting, welding, drydocking, and so many other activities. This is a perfect one for those wanting to know a bit more about the LNG ships.

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There have been so many publications about the carriage of the first cargoes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) onboard the Methane Pioneer in 1959. But what of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a gas ship cargo which predates LNG? When were the pioneering LPG cargoes carried and how did this important seaborne trade develop? In this tribute to the first gas carriers, Robin Gray, former SIGTTO General Manager, sheds light on the early days of the less well-known part of the gas shipping industry and on the role played by one particular shipyard in the North East of England.

This paper by Robin Gray, former general manager of SIGTTO, provides some historical background, touching the post-war development, addresses the major conversions of the vessels and famous conversion projects, applicable rules and patterns, liability insurance and cargo familiarity, material used for the construction and insulation of the cargo tanks, integrated gas distribution, propane loading problems, local gas trials, ethylene-related issues, training provided to the officers, fire protection tests, cooldown tanks, welding problems etc. Have a look into this document since the information contained in it is useful and practical.

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A ship in distress is usually in a condition where outside assistance is required to supplement the resources available on board to deal with the abnormal situation. A distress situation may have many facets ranging from disablement of power and/or steering to more fundamental damage to the hull or cargo system brought about by stress of weather, fire or other abnormal condition.

Thus, the safest place for a ship in distress is in sheltered waters where the necessary external assistance can be brought to bear to bring the situation under control. Once under control, plans can then be made for the long term rectification of the situation, damage or other factors causing the distress situation. In many cases, the ability to move the vessel to a safe, sheltered location is the most important single contribution that a port or coastal authority can make but this should be done in the full understanding of the risks that attach to the damaged condition of the ship. Liquefied gas tankers have unique construction features and their cargoes have unique properties that set them apart from other classes of ship and other categories of hazardous cargo.

This document describes the most important features of gas tankers and gas cargoes for those who may possibly become involved in seeking or granting a temporary refuge for such a ship, or be responsible for the contingency planning for such an event. This edition also includes details of actual incidents involving gas tankers.

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One more compact training course for the people working on board of or involved in the design and construction of the vessels transporting liquefied natural gases, i.e. so-called LNG carriers. There are four major sections in the present course. The first section introduces learners to the membrane LNG concept, particularly the integrated cargo tanks with cryogenic liners.

Then the readers proceed to the pre-concept stage where the job flowchart is presented, followed with the areas to be concentrated on during the design of the subject vessels, including selection of the main dimension and propulsion type, layout of the cargo tanks, weight distribution, general hull scantling, etc. The next area covered in the booklet is the loading – here, the four sample loading cases are presented.

The power estimation has been paid attention. There are several other important aspects covered in the volume including, but not limited to the selection of the steel grades for the hull construction, thermal analysis and boil-off rate, scantling requirements and others. The document will be a great supplementary visual training tool for those in need for the general idea of the LNG transportation.

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The main purpose of the present guide is to provide a thorough reference which might be useful to various port authorities as well as operating management of LNG carriers and terminals in reviewing or developing their planning in order to avoid the accidents or at lease reduce their possibility. The publication would also be quite helpful in controlling the possible consequences of such accidents happening within the port limits.

This second (revised) edition takes into account the STCW Convention and SOLAS IX as well as the ISM Code. It covers ships in transit and operation, ships alongside, public relations and periodic review. Note, however, that the present publication shall not be treated as a comprehensive technical manual on contingency planning since the authors have confined this document to the aspect directly relating to the carriage and handling of gases.

The circumstances influencing the contingency planning may vary from port to ports in the matters such as nautical/weather considerations, types of cargo being handled, authorities etc. When preparing this document, broader interpretation of the term "contingency planning" was taken, including considerations related to the accident prevention and control of possible consequences. 

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The present Guide would mostly be applicable to all liquid gas carriers both at sea and approaches to the ports; it has been released by the working group with the assistance from members of OCIMF, ICS, SIGTTO and ISU aiming to provide a thorough reference that would be useful to the operating managements of gas ships in reviewing or developing their contingency planning.

The contingency plans supplement the SOPEP required for all ships >400 GT as per the Annex I to MARPOL. Regardless of how the liquefied gas is carried (pressure/temperature being meant), the cargo containment shall not be treated as part of the vessel's structure. Such containments are in all cases located inboard of the vessel's side plus above the bottom. The big portion of this booklet has been taken from the CPD (contingency planning document) that have been formulated by the managing teams of a number of companies within the shipping industry.

The present guide is mainly addressed at the ship operating companies  and assumes some general understanding of the cargo characteristics as well as of the design, construction and, of course, operation of the gas carrying ships. Definitely useful publication not only to the managerial stuff but also all personnel.

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The purpose of the present SIGTTO publication is to provide a proper explanation of how insulation flanges protect from ignition caused by arcing. It contains information on the inductive circuits, electrical characteristics of the cargo transfer hoses together with the supporting calculations, some examples of the effects of hose inductance and resistance, information on the effect of capacitance, testing of the flanges and multiple loading arms and parallel circuits, all supplemented with the list of definitions and conclusions and recommendations.

The insulation flanges have been used for several decades; their effectiveness is sometimes seriously challenged, though there have been no reported fire incidents on the manifolds installed on board of tankers or gas carriers. This shall be taken into consideration by the ship operators having a background of road tanker operations, supplying the LNG as fuel oil.

Since this document mainly concentrates on the protection from arcing-caused fires, we would definitely consider it very important and recommended to everyone involved in such sort of operations as the info provided in the booklet might help in improving the operational safety.

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